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  ..[ ].. > > ( ) ( Department of General military subjec
 


The war economy and defense

( ) ( Department of General military subjec


 

19-11-09, 09:03 AM

  : 1

The war economy and defense



 

The war economy and defense

Provided.



Interested in the economy of war and defend the economic effects of military spending in the national economy; and the management of the economy in time of war, in addition to the creation of economic activities and prepared in time of peace to meet the state of war when they occur. It also includes the concerns of the war economy and defense budgets, military expenditure allocation and management of the armed forces and their resources. Is not an economy of war and defend an independent branch of economics, but a method in the analysis of military activities, assistance, treatment and management from an economic perspective. Increased attention to economic areas of war and defense, with the increasing military budgets on the one hand and the magnitude of the expenditures borne by the belligerent States, and its impact on economic activity on the other hand. Economists have consistently since before the First World War to study the impact of military spending in the functioning of the economic process; also took care of economic activity need to adapt to meet the needs of military and civilian alike. From the economic perspective is not on military expenditures and military simply deducted from the economic activities , but an instrument of destruction of economic activity as well, which requires planning and preparing for reconstruction after the end of hostilities. All this interest in the economy to make war and the defense is increasing day after day with the intensification of conflicts between States or groups of States. After the cold war between the feuding camps, the disintegration of the socialist camp as well as the signing of several arms control agreements and the expectation of further international detente, in the light of a new international system, is expected to become the main area of the concerns of the war economy and the defense to the rehabilitation of military industries to civilian purposes, and to address the problems that would result from the disarmament, such as rehabilitation of the armed forces and create job opportunities for them, and address production surpluses that would result from the conversion of military production to civilian production. The concerns of the war economy and the defense will shift from destruction to construction, to address the negative effects on the economy and try to mitigate the positive effects to examine the possible economic and social development at international level and try to reach to the maximum limit. He faces war economy and defense a decisive turn for the time being in light of the growing new trends in international relations, however, concerns the former will not end in the near future.


The armed forces consumers.


Consumption a head of the production cycle of workshops in the national economy, and in many cases is the lack of the internal market a major obstacle in the way of economic growth, and economic crises affecting the industrial economies often lead governments to pursue expansionary policies to control foreign markets for the disposal of surplus products; which leads to wars.

This is what happened in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century when industrial countries began to colonial wars to open markets to products from the colonies, and for sources of cheap raw materials price. This is also what happened in World Wars I and II, which Darta industrial power for the re-division of the colonies, especially the Second World War that took place following the economic expansion that followed the exit from the Great Depression in the thirties of the twentieth century. Contemporary economies suffer from the nightmare of unemployment on the one hand, and surplus production capacity in heavy industries on the other hand, in both cases, the amplification of the armed forces a way appropriate. The increase in the armed forces generate a request and a wide work force and creates opportunities to run, and to provide these troops with equipment, equipment and supplies required military and civilian employment of large numbers of additional workers in the factories and ancillary activities, and when national economies bear the burden of directing a large part of the productive capacity of the purposes of domestic military Governments resort to promote the export of military equipment, often operating the secret services and diplomatic major industrial countries to fuel border disputes between the small States; for the payment of the purchase of weapons and ammunition which there is a market for the disposal of surplus military production, or there is a new market for a new military industries absorb the surplus labor force. Often incite these devices one way or another since the outbreak of war to destroy weapons stored and the depletion of ammunition and the payment of the Warring States to the request for arms and ammunition alternative. Not only the wars that break out between the military and on consumption alone; but also lead to the destruction of infrastructure and industrial establishments in the Warring States, which requires reconstruction after the war Witold this new application activates the economies of industrialized countriesThe end of the colonial wars in the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century and the realization of major industrial countries said the burdens borne by the wars that go the bulk of the economic benefits gained by the outcome of this war; and large economic gains that have accrued to the United States of America as a result of World War II fought partly outside territory, and the consequent weakness of this war in the economies of the warring countries and their dependence on other U.S. products in the stage of the war and reconstruction after, all this led to the emergence of a new strategy, is the strategy of the wars of others.


The independence was granted by the industrialized countries of the colony to its former colonies tool to serve this dual strategy. On the one hand has become the newly independent States need to spend huge sums to build a national armies; and these expenditures are in the coffers of industrial nations, which usually is the former colonial powers Vihrk economic activity, on the other hand was drawn border between independent States in a manner which made bombs time bomb can be detonated when necessary; whether overlapping border in preparation for disputes between States, or the creation of ethnic enclaves, or to provoke a sectarian civil war or creating the conditions for foreign intervention.

All this constitutes a permanent threat requires these countries to allocate huge amounts of money for defense purposes, in addition to the continued development of weapons of Independent States, which makes it unable to manufacture their own weapons and ammunition and a permanent global arms market, concentrated in the major industrialized countries. The development of weapons requires states to quickly replace the existing arsenals of new arsenals, thus constituting a permanent market of military industries in industrialized countries as well as private consumption of the armed forces.


According to available studies that the expenses of war and defense make up a large part of public consumption in the industrialized and developing countries alike, and these expenses are increasing dramatically increased when the conflict intensified, especially wars, and the resulting acts of mobilization, destruction and sabotage. Some sources estimate that the costs of the Iran-Iraq war, which lasted about eight years has increased three hundred billion U.S. dollars in the two sides together, as other sources estimate the costs of the war waged by the international coalition against Iraq in 1991, which lasted little over a month about 150 billion dollars, the losses resulting from the destruction of Kuwait and Iraq, which exceeds the amount of military expenditure.


Declared military budget accounts for a significant amount includes in addition to the salaries of the military, large orders for equipment and ammunition lead to run a large number of plants that absorb millions of workers and give billions of dollars in profits. Suffice it to say that military spending in the United States in 1990 amounted to more than 289 billion U.S. dollars in 1991 amounted to 287.45 billion dollars while exports of the proposed budget for military expenditure in 1992 to more than 278 billion dollars, after the reduction in the wake of the cold war and dtente Bank, and the signing of arms control agreements with Russia Federation. The value of real military expenditure budget officially proclaimed in the Soviet Union in 1991 (before dissolution) more than $ 133 billion, while Western sources estimated the budget at $ 238 billion dollars.

The total military expenditures for in France to $ 37.34 billion, and England billion dollars in 1990, these expenditures have increased steadily year by year despite the state of international dtente currently observed.

The percentage of military expenditures in some countries to more than 30% of the GDP.

It is thus clear that the armed forces of any country in the world is a big consumer market, even in peacetime, their growing influence in social reproduction, and depends to a large extent the proper functioning of the national economy in all sectors, but in times of war military Vidhaaf consumption scores but sometimes hundreds of times, and become a significant burden on the national economy. The per capita military spending in Israel in 1991, more than 1325 U.S. dollars; of which about $ 375 at the expense of foreign military assistance that make U.S. aid more than two thirds. It should be pointed to the specificity of military expenditure in non-industrialized countries, that's expenditure does not generate a whole application internally, but moving the bulk of the application to the economies of the countries exporting weapons and so the impact of military spending in developing countries differs from its effect in industrialized countries.


Economy of war and economic mobilization.



The prospect of a war would make the political leadership and then the leadership of the armed forces focus their attention and give priority to the rapid mobilization of troops, and the possibility of rapid spread of the largest and best equipped troops. Even in a state of peace and dtente, the armed forces pay special attention to the issue of packaging, can not be relied on military industries, regardless of their productive capacity to meeting the needs of the armed forces during times of war directly and in proper time and place, for this was not necessary to work on the development of military research, and means of transport, storage and maintenance, which requires a continuous increase of expenditures, accompanied by an active propaganda to justify the substantial burden and to convince taxpayers to do so. Here, too, must be a distinction between the colonial and newly independent States, the colonial Powers is planning for the wars in order to achieve greater economic gains of the capitalist monopolies and corporate control of the systems of governance, which exploits to their advantage, and have a dual interest in war: win foreign markets for their products and access to raw materials prices cheap one hand, and get requests for military industries or requests The post-war reconstruction of the hand.

The governments of these countries need great efforts to convince the political parties, trade unions and other groups to approve the funding of military operations; and accept the sacrifice to war is to have an obvious interest in it. The newly independent States which have to defend its sovereignty and its national territory against external threats about the mobilization of public opinion is easier and do not require much effort, but the economic mobilization which is very expensive and may threaten the process of economic growth to stop, if not diminished. And economic mobilization for war, not by one, by imposing an artificial war mobilization for defense purposes, so the arms race between the parties, as happened in the race Anglo-German naval armaments before the First World War, which made the best early image of the arms race based on race in the field of inventions even if untried in battle. Germany have increased expenditure on the armed forces from about 11 million pounds in 1870 to 111 million pounds in 1914 and in the same period, expenditure increased empire Austria, Hungary, from 8 million to 36 million, as expenses rose on the British armed forces from 23 million pounds to about 77 million pounds in the same period. These figures are very large scales of time and that a rough estimate these expenditures constitute 4.6% of gross national product in Germany and 6.1% in the empire of Austria, Hungary and 3.4% in Britain. The arms race that began in the aftermath of the Second World War in an era of cold war between the warring camps; West led the United States, and East led by the former Soviet Union, its effects were not confined to Member States in military pacts NATO and the Warsaw Pact, but led to split almost the entire world into two opposite sides to make every country in the world, no matter what its political stance with the West or the East or a different geographical location; make them have to allocate large amounts of resources for economic mobilization of military, so as to face the dangers that may be threatened by a neighbor of the other camp. There are many examples of this: India and Pakistan, Arab countries and Israel, Iran and Iraq, the two Koreas, China, Taiwan and others. It is sufficient to demonstrate that the reference to military expenditures, even after the end of the Cold War and the global trend to reduce military expenditure, make up respectively 5.4%, 11%, 3.1%, 7.1%, 2.6%, 21%, 12%, 9.3% of gross national product in the United States of America and the former Soviet Union, India, Pakistan, Iran, Iraq, Israel, and Syria.


In the face of the tremendous progress achieved by the techniques of armaments, and the availability of nuclear deterrent to both warring camps of military strategy shifted from confrontation to attrition, and the overall global war to regional wars test. In these circumstances become economic mobilization and the arms race Workers directed to the economically weak countries; to be paid on the improvement of economic status, focusing on arms control and military mobilization, which led to the collapse of fragile states as countries of the former socialist camp, and forced many countries to change their political positions and selling under the banner of the U.S. United States of America. And attrition not only financial resources but also for the manpower and natural resources, too, that the threat to countries inviting them to increase the number of armed forces which constitutes a burden on economic growth, to transform an increasing proportion of the labor force in the area of production to the area of civil service and military industries . This means that the States retain a large number of armed forces in times of relative peace, while adopt the principle of general mobilization in times of war; call up the reserves and the separation of personnel from their civilian jobs to join the ranks of the army.

To illustrate the importance of packaging and its impact sufficient to indicate that members of the armed forces operating in Israel make up more than 3% of the total population; around 10% of the workforce, while the reserve forces make up 10.5% of the population, or about 35% of the workforce, knowing that Stand-by Forces personnel serving in the armed forces at least a month in the year.

In Syria, these indicators will be 3% each. It is thus clear the extent to which the Zionist regime on its troops back to the impossibility of carrying the burden of the Israeli economy in constant mobilization. Therefore, the Zionist enemy's strategy is based on the Blitzkrieg, which provides him an edge on the Arab side, to be able to mobilize reserves and wife in the battle quickly. The effect of the economic mobilization for war and defense high rate of inflation, due to increased military expenditures in national income, and distort the structure of production for the benefit of military industries at the expense of civilian industries, and governments are forced to increase the tax burden to finance military spending and military operations.


War and defense and government intervention in the economy.


The need for the armed forces to military supplies and a severe lack of goods in the civilian sector due to increased demand during the war; added to the chaos that have permeated the market leading governments, regardless of their economic system, to intervene in the economy, to resort to the distribution of resources and goods beyond the administrative decisions the market mechanism when necessary. Confirm this trend and experience the world wars, and wars as well as the experience of some long-standing regional; that state intervention to address the shortage in a particular commodity may lead to disruption in other areas of the economy, inviting them to greater involvement and so on, as a result of the intervention state to find themselves bound, by virtue of necessary, to reject the economic freedom and the introduction of the principle of administrative guidance to resources and goods and the placement of production and consumption of civilians for military purposes. Usually imposed during the war, governments in control over all aspects of the economy and control in varied ways to direct government administration for private industry and confiscated the full and restricted activity to the granting of official state monopoly to buy some commodities, as well as to stabilize prices and to impose strict control organs. The governments are forced sometimes to codify some of the basic materials and other consumer goods, working on distributed under the ration card. Governments also sometimes resort to force business owners to change their production of civilian to military production or expand their business and increase shifts work, in the case of extreme necessity the government institutions run by members of the armed forces under the supervision of their respective owners.

In order for governments to intervene in the economy in this manner while reducing the freedom of trade unions and employers often resort to the imposition of emergency laws and obtaining parliaments additional emergency powers to enable them to lead the society as a whole towards the objectives of war, at the same time governments have enacted laws to increase tax collection to finance hostilities, Vttjma a result, large proportions of national income, however, the government. In the stages of preparation for war, Governments resort to building factories shadow directly, or to compel the private sector building.

 

 


 

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