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  ..[ ].. > > ( ) ( Department of General military subjec

Human Rights

( ) ( Department of General military subjec


20-04-09, 08:41 AM

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Human Rights


By*: ‬LTC.Dr*. ‬Abdullah El-Moneif
In this article I will review the concept*, ‬as discussed in the Western literature and successively defined by the United Nations*. ‬I will advance this discussion by presenting human rights in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Saudi cultural understanding of the phenomenon*.‬

The view adopted by the western scholars with regard to international human rights law has tended to emphasize the basic rights of individuals*. ‬According to Paul Magnarella*, ‬there are two typically western definitions of human rights*. ‬The first stresses how they help each individual develop his/her potentials*.‬
Human rights are those conditions of life*, ‬which allow us to realize our full potential and to develop our qualities of intelligence*, ‬conscience and spirituality*. ‬Such an environment respects and protects the dignity of each person and rejects stereotypical views of individuals*. ‬Human rights is not an abstract concept for lawyers and philosophers*--‬human rights affect the daily lives of every man*, ‬woman and child in our society* (‬Magnarella 2002*, ‬13*).‬
The concept of human rights is best interpreted by constructivist theory*, ‬as Donnelly puts it*:‬
Human rights aim to establish and guarantee the conditions necessary for the development of the human person envisioned* ... [‬one particular*] ‬underlying moral theory of human nature*, ‬thereby bringing into being that type of person*. ‬The evolution of particular conceptions or lists of human rights is seen in the constructivist theory as the result of the reciprocal interactions of moral conceptions and material conditions of life*, ‬mediated through social institutions such as rights the clearest of several definitions in the contemporary literature*:‬
Human rights are rights of individuals in society*... [‬e]very human being has*... ‬legitimate*, ‬valid*, ‬justified*, ‬claims upon his or her society*... ‬to various* ‬goods* ‬and benefits*... ‬they are defined*, ‬particular claims listed in international* ‬instruments*... ‬deemed essential for individual well-being*, ‬dignity*, ‬and fulfillment*, ‬and that reflect a common sense of justice*, ‬fairness*, ‬and decency* (‬Henkin 1990*, ‬2*).‬
Also this modern concept of human rights has been discussed in comparative philosophical frameworks in western political philosophy* (‬Donnelly 1989*, ‬Galtung 1994*). ‬The concept of human rights is dynamic*. ‬It has evolved over time*, ‬and is still evolving*. ‬In the late 1990s the definition of human rights has expanded to embrace not only civil*, ‬political*, ‬social*, ‬cultural*, ‬and economic rights*, ‬but also the right to peace*, ‬the right to a* ‬ healthy environment*, ‬the rights to development etc*.‬

Human Rights and the United Nations
The remarkable evolution in international human rights law after World War II began with the United Nations Charter*. ‬The charter asserts*, ‬its preamble that the members are* ‬determined*... ‬to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights*, ‬in the dignity and worth of the human person*, ‬in the equal rights of men and women* (‬Gerhard 1996*, ‬177*). ‬The three major provisions are Article 1*(‬3*), ‬55* (‬c*), ‬and 56*. ‬The first of these provisions recognized that one of the purposes of the United Nations foundation in 1945* ‬is international co-operation in solving problems of an economic*, ‬social*, ‬cultural*, ‬or humanitarian character*, ‬and* ‬in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race*, ‬sex*, ‬language or religion* (‬Buergenthal 1988*, ‬19*).‬
In Article 56*, ‬member states undertake* ‬to take joint and separate action in cooperation with the Organization for the achievement of the purposes set forth in Article 55*". ‬Article 62* ‬directs the economic and social council to make recommendations in prusuance of Article 55*, ‬c*, ‬and and Article 68* ‬sets up a commission for the* ‬promotion of human rights*.‬

Human Rights in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
After exploring the manner in which human rights have been discussed in Western literature*, ‬let us now focus our attention on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Saudi society and the manner in which Islam has historically shaped and defined its understanding of the subject matter*. ‬There are two points to note here if we are going to appreciate the dialogue between the West and the Muslim World*. ‬The first point of discourse is the nature of man in the two systems of conceptualization*. ‬For Saudi society Islam has made it categorically clear that the human being is a theomorphic being who has physical and ****physical element*. ‬Secondly*, ‬and it is well known that the Sariah of Islam came to protect the five necessary things and prohibit transgression against them*, ‬and they are*: (‬1*) ‬the religion*; (‬2*) ‬life*; (‬3*) ‬wealth*; (‬4*) ‬honour*; ‬and* (‬5*) ‬intellect*.‬
Freedom of conscience is laid down by the Quran itself*: ‬There is no compulsion in religion* (‬2:256*). ‬Racism is incomprehensible to Muslims*, ‬for the Quran speaks of human equality in the following terms*; ‬O mankind*! ‬female*, ‬and made you into nations and tribes*, ‬so that you may come to know one another*. ‬Truly*, ‬the most honored of you in Gods sight is the greatest of you in peity*. ‬God is All-Knowing*, ‬All-Aware* (‬Quran 49:13*). ‬It is against this background that we now turn to the understanding of the Saudi approach* ‬to human rights*.‬
In the speech of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia delivered by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah Ibn Abdul Aziz* (‬then Crown prince*) ‬in the opening session of the United Nations Millennium Summit*, ‬held in New York on September 9*, ‬2000*, ‬King Abdullah* ‬said*,‬
The adoption by the United Nations of the topic of human rights*, ‬which was enshrined in the Human Rights Conference held in Vienna in April 1993*, ‬is appreciated and commended by us*. ‬It is unfortunate that the issue of human rights is often used as a means of pressure and a tool of extortion*, ‬with the aim of achieving certain political and economic interests*. ‬We regard human rights as a gift to mankind from the Creator*, ‬and not one gratuitously granted by one human being to another*. ‬Such human rights exist in the roots of every human civilization*, ‬and are not a monopoly of one culture*. ‬It is absured to impose on an individual or a society rights that are alien to its beliefs or principles*. (‬Ministry of Information 2000*).‬
In the speech of the Kingdom delivered by HRH Crown Prince Sultan Ibn Abdul Aziz in the United Nations High Level Plenary Meeting in New York on September*, ‬15*, ‬2005*, ‬Crown Prince Sultan said*: ‬This international summit is being held five years after the UN Millennium Summit*, ‬whose agreed-upon objectives still require more effort in order to be met Today*, ‬we are in dire need of an United Nations*, ‬one that is capable of fulfilling its responsibility for maintaining international peace and security*, ‬fostering sustainable development and safeguarding human rights in a manner that respects the diversity of societies and cultured* (‬Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2005*).‬





20-04-09, 08:42 AM

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The Saudi Basic System of Government and Human Rights
The laws of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia prohibits torture in all its forms and protects citizens and provides free social services in different form*, ‬s*, ‬for example*, ‬free health care*, ‬education*, ‬etc*... ‬The Kingdom is a signatory to the UN Convention against torture and other cruel*, ‬inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment*. ‬Torture and inhuman treatment are crimes punishable by the laws and regulations of the Kingdom*. ‬A clear picture of the Saudi human rights can be seen through a discussion of certain selected articles from the Basic System of Government* (‬BSG*) ‬which guarantees human rights*:‬
1*. ‬Article 8*, ‬which states that the Saudi legal system operates on the basis of justice*, ‬consultation*, ‬and equality according to Islamic law*.‬
2*. ‬Article 9*, ‬which states that the family is the core of society and that citizens must respect the law and obey their leaders and follow Islamic teachings*.‬
3*. ‬Article 35* ‬guarantees that* ‬no one shall be arrested*, ‬imprisoned or have their actions restricted except in cases specified by the law*.‬
4*. ‬Article 36*, ‬of the Basic System of Government declared that* ‬the State provide security to all of its citizens and residents and no person shall be restrained or arrested or detained unless on lawful grounds*.‬
5*. ‬Article 37*, ‬which states that the home is sacrosanct*. ‬The state is not allowed to enter a house without approval from the owner and may not search homes unless the law permits if for security reasons*.‬
6*. ‬Article 38*, ‬states that there can be no punishment or imprisonment without a reigious edict or a ruling from the judicial system according to the law*.‬
7*. ‬Article 40*, ‬also states that it is forbidden to open mail*, ‬or to spy on telephone conversations and other communication methods and that it is also unlawful to confiscate material or to look into it except in certain cases when the state deems it necessary*.‬
8*. ‬Article 27*, ‬which states that the government ensures the well-being of citizens in emergencies*, ‬old age and sickness*.‬
9*. ‬Article 28*, ‬imposes on the State the duty is capable of working*.‬
10*. ‬Article 29*, ‬where it says that the government provides scientific*, ‬cultural*, ‬and social education and encourages scientific research*.‬
11*. ‬Article 30*, ‬states that the government provides public education and commits itself to combating illiteracy*.‬
12*. ‬Article 31*, ‬which guarantees free health care to every citizen*.‬
13*. ‬Article 16*, ‬protects public funds*.‬
14*. ‬Article 26*, ‬which says the government*, ‬protects human rights according to Shariah*, ‬in addition to the rules about arrest mentioned above*.‬
15*. ‬Article 34*, ‬states that the majlis of the King and the crown prince are open to anyone*, ‬and that every person has the right to speak directly to authorities* - ‬citizens and residents alike*.‬
16*. ‬Article 17* ‬and Article 18*, ‬say that the government guarantees private ownership and that no one may take away private property except in the public interest and on condition that the owner be compensated*.‬
17*. ‬Article 20*, ‬states that the confiscation of public money is forbidden and that the confiscation of private funds in punishment for an offense cannot happen without a judicial ruling*.‬
18*. ‬Article 47*, ‬says that the right to sue is guaranteed to all citizens and residents alike*.‬
1*. ‬Article 100*, ‬of the Directorate of General Security Order states that if the accused refuses to provide information*, ‬he or she should be asked by the investigator*, ‬without any compulsion or torture*, ‬to explain his or her grounds for remaining whosoever brings about the detention of an individual without due cause*, ‬or inflects harm or injury*, ‬should be punished by imprisonment of a term *****alent to the period of false imprisonment and be held liable for damages*.‬
3*. ‬Article 28*, ‬of the Prison Regulations states that no prisoner or detainee should be suffer any form of assault*. ‬Punitive measures are to be taken against any civil or military official convicted of such violations*. ‬Accused persons must have a fair trial in all its stages*. ‬The accused has the right to delegate his defense to whosoever he wishes*.‬
4*. ‬Article 59*, ‬of the order of Procedure of Administration Work at the Shariah Court says*, ‬everyone has the right to delegate the defiance of this case without limitation*. ‬If the accused does not understand the Arabic language the court must provide a translator without charge to the accused*.‬
5*. ‬Article 33* ‬of the Judicial System of Saudi Arabia declares that all court sittings must be in public unless the court feels that the proceedings should be private in order to spare the embarrassment of individuals and their families*, ‬or to protect the general good*. ‬The verdict in all cases must be made public*.‬
6*. ‬Article5*, ‬of the Criminal System states that upon confirmed suspicions*, ‬the period under arrest without charge should not exceed 3* ‬days and must be based on the written directives of the investigative body*.‬
7*. ‬Article 8*, ‬of the same system declares that at the end of a three day detention period the accused must be set free by order of the head of the division in which the investigation takes place*, ‬if there is no issue a memorandum placing the individuals under arrest for a period not to exceed 21* ‬days from the date of the memorandum*.‬
8*. ‬Article 12*, ‬which calls for the accused to the presented to court after 21* ‬days so that the case may be reviewed*.‬




20-04-09, 08:43 AM

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The National Human Rights Association
In May 2003*, ‬the Kingdom established the National Human Rights Association* (‬NHRA*), ‬and charged*, ‬with implementing the international human rights charter signed*. ‬The Saudi Arabias former Ambassador to the United States Prince Bandar bin Sultan states*: ‬The establishment of this human rights organization is just another step in Saudi Arabias integrated reform program*. ‬Institutions such as these are the foundation for successful and lasting reforms* (‬Saudi Arabia 2005*). ‬There is already a human rights committee at the Consultative Council*, ‬Saudi Arabias 150-member advisory body*. ‬Over the past few years*, ‬Saudi Arabia has embarked upon a comprehensive economic*, ‬educational*, ‬and promote a vibrant economy and broader civic and political participation of its citizens*.‬

Human Rights Conference and the* ‬Riyadh Declaration
In October 2003*, ‬the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia held conference entitled* ‬Human Rights in Peace and War*. ‬The conference concluded with the issuance of the* ‬Riyadh Declaration* ‬which states that respect for human life and dignity is the foundation of human rights*; ‬that a human being deserves respect*, ‬regardless of race*, ‬color or sex*; ‬that violation of human rights is a crime deserving severe punishment*; ‬that to hold a human being in custody without legal basis is forbidden by Islamic laws*; ‬that disregard for privacy and property rights is a violation of human rights*; ‬and that tolerance of faith is required by Islam*, ‬which also prohibits coercing people to follow a certain religion* (‬Saudi Arabia 2005*).‬

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