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العودة   ..[ منتديـــات البســـالة ].. > جناح المواضيع العســكرية العامة (Pavilion General Topics) > قـســـم المواضـــيع العســــكرية العامـة (باللغة الانجليزية) ( Department of General military subjec
التعليمـــات قائمة الأعضاء وسام التقويم البحث مشاركات اليوم اجعل كافة الأقسام مقروءة
 


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the logistics

قـســـم المواضـــيع العســــكرية العامـة (باللغة الانجليزية) ( Department of General military subjec


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قديم 28-06-09, 10:20 PM

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THE BRIGADE



INTRODUCTION
a. Army units accomplish combat, combat support, and combat service support (CSS) missions. Combat units fight the battle to defeat, destroy, or capture the enemy. Examples of combat elements are infantry, mechanized infantry, armor, and attack helicopter units. Combat support units provide "operational assistance" to combat elements. Examples of combat support units include signal battalions, combat engineer battalions, military police (MP) companies, and military intelligence companies. CSS units perform logistics functions. Examples of CSS units are maintenance companies, supply companies, transportation companies, medical companies, and personnel service battalions

b. Logistics is the process of planning and executing support for military operations. It is an overarching process that occurs across the range of military operations. Geographic conditions, space and time dimensions, and a determined enemy work to make logistics operations difficult. Logistics operations are planned so they continue to resource forces throughout conflict, adapting as conditions change. A dependable uninterrupted logistics system helps commanders seize and maintain the initiative. The logistics objective is to ensure successful operations

c. Logistics arrangements cannot be so meager that they do not meet commanders' needs as they execute operations, nor can they be so excessive that they overwhelm commanders' abilities to move, protect, and employ them. The logistics system must strike a balance, providing sufficient support to resource operations through the peaks and valleys of their duration without burdening commanders with more support than is necessary to succeed. Logistics is required at all levels of conflict

Strategic logistics is largely the purview of the continental United States (CONUS) industrial and civilian sector. Strategic logistics deals with mobilization, acquisition, projecting forces, strategic mobility, and the strategic concentration of logistics in a theater base and communications zone (COMMZ

Operational logistics focuses on force reception; infrastructure development; distribution; and managing materiel, movements, personnel, and health services. Operational logistics encompasses those support activities required to resource campaigns and major operations. It enables success at the tactical level of war

Tactical logistics enhances the tactical commander's ability to fight battles and engagements. Successful tactical logistics provides the right support at the right time and place. The focus at this level is on the tactical logistics functions of manning and arming tactical units, fixing and fueling their equipment, moving soldiers' equipment and supplies, and sustaining soldiers and their systems

d. Certain logistics characteristics are prescribed by logistics doctrine. These characteristics provide a framework for logisticians to adhere to when planning and executing logistics operations. These characteristics are anticipation (of mission requirements), integration (of logistics plans and tactical plans), continuity (continuous support to the commander), responsiveness (of logistics support in meeting changing requirements), and improvisation (innovative methods of support). Logisticians can contribute greatly to success on the battlefield by adhering to these characteristics

e. A variety of organizations provide support to Army forces in the field. Those organizations range in size from several individuals at company level to major commands like the transportation command (TRANSCOM) that consists of hundreds of soldiers at theater army (TA) level. CSS organizations are either fixed or "tailored" to meet anticipated logistic requirements. At corps and TA, the logistics organization is tailored to meet supported organizations' anticipated needs. The basic building block of the logistics system above division level is company-sized or detachment-sized elements. Up through division level, the logistics organization is essentially fixed by a table of organization and equipment (TOE). Augmentation can provide additional capabilities

COMPANY-LEVEL SUPPORT (MANEUVER COMPANY)

a. A company team (battery, troop) is the lowest level administrative and tactical organization with personnel designated to perform logistics functions (the company supply section). A typical maneuver company team receives support from two principal sources: from within its own structure and from a battalion task force headquarters (HQ). The burden of logistics is largely removed from the company team commander and placed under the battalion task force's control. This allows the company team commander to concentrate on fighting his unit to accomplish the tactical mission. The company team's logistics responsibility is to report its status and requirements, and assure logistics operations are properly executed in the company area

The company team's executive officer (XO) is the logistics planner and coordinator. During preparations for combat, he coordinates closely with the first sergeant (1SG) to determine what CSS logistics support is required and makes sure arrangements have been made to support the tactical plan

The 1SG is the company team's CSS operator. He executes the company logistics plan. The 1SG directly supervises and controls the company trains (normally limited to medical and maintenance activities) and company resupply operations

The supply sergeant is the company team's representative in the battalion field trains. He organizes the standardized resupply logistics package (LOGPAC) and moves it forward to link up with the 1SG. The supply sergeant then assists the 1SG in conducting resupply operations at the company level

b. The battalion task force HQ will normally provide the following support to a typical maneuver company team

A maintenance team with recovery vehicle from the maintenance platoon

An aidman from the medical platoon, along with an evacuation team consisting of an ambulance with an aidman and ambulance driver

Fuel and ammunition transported by vehicles from the support platoon

A mess team from the support platoon when hot meals are available

c. When company elements are cross-attached from one battalion to another, forming battalion task forces, the logistics assets necessary to provide support are also cross-attached. Higher HQ standing operating procedures (SOPs) normally establish the composition of logistics assets needed to support the cross-attached company. This organization usually includes medical and maintenance support, and supply and transportation assets to deliver classes I, III, V, and IX



BATTALION-LEVEL SUPPORT

a. The maneuver battalions in a heavy division have organic CSS elements within the headquarters and headquarters company (HHC). The HHC has three platoons that provide logistics to the battalion,medical, maintenance, and support platoons. FM 71-2, The Tank and Mechanized Infantry Battalion Task Force, discusses in detail the CSS platoons organic to the battalion. The CSS elements of other battalion-sized combat organizations, such as cavalry squadrons and field artillery battalions, perform essentially the same logistic functions as the platoons mentioned previously

b. Trains are any grouping of personnel, vehicles, and equipment organized to provide CSS at company team and battalion level. Trains may be centralized in one location (unit trains), or they may be echeloned in three or more locations (echeloned trains). There are three types of trains,unit trains, combat trains, and field trains

(1) Unit trains consist of all battalion logistics assets, including company team assets, and any supporting assets from higher HQ. Unit trains are common in assembly areas and during extended tactical marches. Once combat operations begin, the battalion commander, based on the tactical situation, will either keep all logistics assets in one location as a unit train or echelon logistics forward

 

 


 

المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

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قديم 28-06-09, 10:25 PM

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Combat trainsare organized at company and battalion levels to support combat operations.
(a) Company combat trains. The 1SG controls company combat trains that normally consist of medical and maintenance teams. The remainder of the company logistics assets (supply section) will be at either the battalion field trains or combat trains. The company combat trains will normally operate about 500 to 1,000 meters (or one terrain feature) to the rear of the company to provide immediate recovery, medical aid, and maintenance.
(b) Battalion combat trains. The battalion S4 controls the battalion combat trains. They nor-mally consist of a command post (CP), limited amounts of class III and V (for emergency resupply), medical platoon elements [battalion aid station (BAS)], and elements of the maintenance platoon at the unit maintenance collection point (UMCP). A maintenance support team (MST) from the forward support battalion (FSB) may also be located at the UMCP. The battalion combat trains should be close enough to the front lines to be responsive to the forward units but not within range of enemy direct fire.

Battalion field trains consist of those remaining logistics resources not required for the combat element's immediate or critical support. The HHC commander controls the field trains, and they are usually located in the brigade support area (BSA).

c. The battalion commander often relies on his XO to supervise overall battalion-level logistics operations. Descriptions of the functions of several of the XO's staff members follow:

The adjutant (S1) is responsible for the Personnel and Administration Center (PAC) that provides personnel and administrative support to the battalion's soldiers. This includes maintaining unit strength; managing personnel; and maintaining law and order, morale, and discipline. The S1 coordinates with the medical platoon leader (a physician) to ensure that patient treatment and evacuation are planned and coordinated throughout the task force area.

The operations and training officer (S3) recommends supply and maintenance support priorities for subordinate units. The S3 does this based on his own knowledge of current and future operations and recommendations from the S4.

The supply officer (S4) is the key coordinator of all battalion logistics activities. He plans, coordinates, and directly supervises the logistic effort, including preparing paragraph 4 (concept of support) of the operation order (OPORD). The S4 is responsible for battalion combat train arrangements, security, and movement.
The HHC commander is located in the field trains and acts as the battalion task force logistics coordinator, assisting the S1 and S4 by ensuring that support from the field trains is smooth, timely, and efficient. He is responsible for field train coordination, security, and movement.

The battalion maintenance officer (BMO) is located at the UMCP and plans, coordinates, and supervises the maintenance platoon's maintenance and recovery efforts.

The support platoon leader assists the HHC commander in the field trains' operations. His primary function is organizing the convoy for moving all company LOGPACs for resupply and leading the convoy to a designated logistics release point (LRP).

d. Logistics packages (LOGPACs) provide the most efficient resupply of forward battalion task force units. Under the HHC commander and support platoon leader's supervision, the company supply sergeant organizes LOGPACs in the field trains. LOGPACs are organized for each company team and separate element in the task force and moved forward at least daily for routine resupply. When possible, all LOGPACs are moved forward in a single convoy under the support platoon leader's control. Special LOGPACs may be organized and dispatched as the tactical situation and logistic demand require. The S4 must plan and coordinate LOGPAC operations to ensure they fully support the battalion task force commander's tactical plan.

Task force SOP establishes the standard LOGPAC. Normally, a company team LOGPAC includes the unit supply truck with water trailer carrying rations, mail, any other requested supplies, including replacement personnel; bulk fuel trucks; ammunition trucks; and vehicles carrying additional supplies and replacements as needed. LOGPACs move along the brigade main supply route to an LRP where the unit 1SG or a unit guide takes control of the company LOGPAC. At the company resupply point, the 1SG controls the LOGPAC and conducts resupply operations using one of two methods.

Service-station method. Using the service-station method, individual vehicles move back to a centrally located rearm and refuel point. Based on the enemy situation, one vehicle per platoon or section, or even an entire platoon, will pull out of the positions, resupply, and return to position(s) until the company has been resupplied.

Tailgate method. Using the tailgate method, combat vehicles remain in place or back out of their positions a short distance so the resupply vehicle is not exposed. Fuel and ammunition trucks go to each vehicle position in turn. The tailgate method is normally conducted in an assembly area only. If it is employed in forward positions, terrain must mask the resupply. This procedure takes much longer than the service-station method. Once resupply operations are completed, the 1SG or the supply sergeant returns the LOGPAC to the LRP where it meets up with the support platoon leader. When possible, the reunited task force LOGPAC convoy returns to the field trains together for greater security.

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

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قديم 28-06-09, 10:29 PM

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DIVISIONAL BRIGADE-LEVEL SUPPORT


a. Divisional brigades are tactical HQ assigned to divisions to which variable numbers of maneuver battalions and battalion task forces are assigned. Divisional brigades do not have an organic CSS element other than the support section of the HHC that supports the HQ. Each brigade relies on an FSB for logistics. The FSB is assigned to the division support command (DISCOM) and is given a mission of direct support (DS) to the divisional brigade. The brigade commander is responsible for overall planning and integrating all aspects of brigade operations, including logistics in the brigade area of operations (AO). The brigade S1, S4, the FSB commander, and the FSB support operations officer are the primary CSS planners and operators for the brigade commander.

The brigade S1 normally operates in the brigade rear CP located in the BSA with the S4 section. The S1 is responsible to the brigade commander for maintaining unit strength, personnel, morale, discipline, and law and order. The S1 prepares personnel estimates that identify the strengths and weaknesses of tactical courses of action and identifies personnel requirements of the tactical plan.

The brigade S4 provides logistics information to the commander and functions as the brigade's logistics planner. He coordinates with the battalion XOs and S4s about the status of equipment and supplies. The S4 has representatives in both the main and rear CPs and is normally located at the rear CP. The S4 coordinates with the FSB commander and support operations officer to ensure the brigade commander's logistics priorities are understood and supported.

The FSB commander is the brigade commander's logistics operator. He advises the brigade commander concerning supply, maintenance, field and health services, and implementing the logistics functions throughout the brigade. The FSB commander has operational control over all units and elements within the BSA for CSS activity, movement, security, terrain management (positioning), and synchronization.

The FSB support operations officer coordinates and provides technical supervision for the FSB's logistics mission. He advises the FSB commander on support requirements. He analyzes the FSB's ability to support requirements, plans and monitors support operations, and makes necessary adjustments to ensure support requirements are met. The support operations officer also coordinates with the DISCOM for reinforcing support as required.

The FSB is part of the DISCOM and is task-organized to provide dedicated DS-level logistics support for a specific maneuver brigade in tactical operations. The FSB's primary role is to provide DS to the brigade and divisional units operating in the brigade area. The FSB must support current operations and monitor the implementation of the support plan in conjunction with the brigade S4. The FSB must also plan to support future operations. In addition, the FSB is responsible for organizing all units in the BSA for defense and is responsible to the brigade commander for this mission. The DISCOM reinforces maintenance, medical, and supply capabilities when the mission or size of the brigade dictates. When the FSB is tasked to provide support to nondivisional units in the brigade area, it must be augmented with elements from the corps logistics organization. The FSB is organized with a headquarters and headquarters detachment (HHD), supply company, maintenance company, and medical company

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

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قديم 28-06-09, 10:35 PM

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(a) The FSB HHD consists of a battalion HQ and an HQ detachment. The HQ detachment is responsible for billeting, discipline, security, training, and administration of personnel assigned to the HHD. The battalion HQ has five staff sections: command, S1/PAC, S2/S3, support operations, and S4. The battalion HQ missions include,

Command and control (C2) of organic and attached units.
C2 of all units in the BSA for security and terrain management.
Planning, directing, and supervising the support the FSB provides to division units in the brigade area.
Coordinating support to corps units in the brigade area.
Providing information and advice on FSB support to the commander and staff of the supported brigade and the DISCOM.

(b) The supply company consists of a company HQ and a supply platoon. The company,

Receives, stores, and issues class I, II, III (packaged), IV (limited), and VII supplies as well as unclassified maps.
Receives, stores, and issues class III (bulk) petroleum using organic fuel transportation assets.
Transloads class V supplies from corps transportation assets to unit vehicles.
Operates a salvage point.
! Provides unit maintenance for organic vehicles and equipment as well as those of the HHD.

(c) The maintenance company consists of a company HQ and five other sections or platoons. The company's organization is further adjusted based on the number of tank or mechanized battalions it must support. The adjustment is made by task organizing system support teams into MSTs designed to provide DS-level maintenance support to an armor, artillery, or mechanized infantry battalion. The company,

Provides DS maintenance (DSM) to supported units in the brigade area.
Provides limited recovery assistance to supported units when required.
Provides technical assistance to supported units that perform unit-level maintenance within the brigade.
Provides technical supervision of supply of prescribed load list (PLL) items for supported units.
Maintains an authorized stockage list (ASL) of class IX repair parts to support the items stocked in combat PLLs of support units.

(d) The medical company consists of a company HQ, treatment platoon, and ambulance platoon. The company,

Provides combat health support (CHS) on an area basis for organic and attached elements of the brigade and other units operating in the BSA.
Receives and sorts patients and provides initial medical and resuscitative care.
Evacuates casualties from the maneuver BASs to its clearing station.
Provides emergency dental care and limited lab, pharmacy, and radiology services.
Provides medical resupply to units in the brigade area.
Provides patient holding for up to 40 patients who are able to return to duty (RTD) within 72 hours.

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

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قديم 28-06-09, 10:39 PM

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SEPARATE BRIGADE-LEVEL SUPPORT


Separate brigades (armor, infantry, mechanized infantry, airborne, and air assault) are not assigned to divisions and are designed to be committed in combat as separate units. A separate brigade receives most of its DS CSS from an organic support battalion. The support battalion is organized with an HHC, a supply and transport (S&T) company, maintenance company, and medical company (seefigure 1-3). The support battalion receives general support (GS) and reinforcing DS from corps support command (COSCOM) elements.

a. The HHC provides C2 for the support battalion in the same manner as a DISCOM HHC. Unlike the divisional support battalions, it has a brigade materiel management center (BMMC). The BMMC provides the link for CSS between the separate brigade and COSCOM.

b. The S&T company performs a DS supply mission similar to a main support battalion (MSB) supply and service (S&S) company, plus provides transportation support for supply distribution and moving the brigade's supply reserve. When augmented, the company provides mortuary affairs; shower, laundry, and clothing repair (SLCR); and unclassified map supply.

c. The maintenance company furnishes separate brigade elements with DSM, repair parts supply, and technical assistance. It is organized with the required system support teams to maintain assigned brigade equipment and systems except in the areas of ammunition, medical equipment, airdrop equipment, and avionics.

d. The medical company provides CHS to the separate brigade at the same level as found in a division (level II). The company has treatment and ambulance platoons, a medical supply section, a preventive medicine (PM) section, mental health team section, an optometry section, and an area support section.

TERMINOLOGY.

a. DS is a mission given to supply, services, transportation, and maintenance units that normally provide support directly to other specific units. This allows the DS unit to respond directly to the supported unit's requests for assistance or supplies.

b. GS is a mission given to supply, services, transportation, and maintenance units that normally provide support to DS units and other GS units.

c. Reconstitution is a total process that increases unit combat effectiveness using the three elements of reorganization, regeneration, and assessment.

Reorganization is action taken to shift internal resources within a degraded unit to increase its level of combat effectiveness. Reorganization is normally done at unit level (company, battalion, brigade, etc.) and requires only limited external support such as supply replenishment, maintenance assistance, and personnel replacement.

(a) Immediate reorganization,quickly and temporarily restores degraded units to their minimum required levels of effectiveness. It is normally implemented in combat positions or as close as possible to meet near-term needs. Platoons usually conduct immediate reorganization after seizing an objective.
(b) Deliberate reorganization,conducted when more time and resources are available. It occurs farther to the rear than immediate reorganization. Equipment repair and cross-leveling are more extensive.

Regeneration is action taken to rebuild a unit through external resources using large-scale replacement of personnel, equipment, and supplies; reestablishing essential C2; and conducting mission-essential training. This effort is directed toward restoring the organization's cohesion, discipline, and fighting effective-ness. The echelon two levels above the organization to be regenerated normally conducts regeneration,battalion by division, brigade by corps.

Assessmentmeasures a unit's capability to perform its mission. It occurs in two phases. The unit commander conducts the first phase by assessing his unit before, during, and after operations. The second phase is assessing a unit after it has been removed from combat. External elements conduct this assessment.

d. Classes of supply. The Army has divided supplies into 10 classes for planning and administrative purposes. Definitions and "examples" of each supply class, symbols, and a miscellaneous grouping follow:

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

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قديم 28-06-09, 10:43 PM

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Supply Class Symbol Definition and Examples


I Subsistence items and gratuitous health and welfare items B-rations; meals, ready to eat (MREs); fresh fruits; water; and vegetables.

II Equipment, other than principal items, prescribed in author- ization and allowance tables (individual equipment, clothing items, tentage, tool sets, administrative supplies, and housekeeping supplies).

III Petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL),fuel, hydraulic and insulating oils, chemical products, antifreeze compounds, compressed gases, and coal. Class III (bulk) is POL in containers that hold more than 55 gallons e.g., diesel fuel, motor gasoline (MOGAS), and aviation fuel. Class III (package) is POL in containers that hold 55 gallons or less.

IV Construction and barrier materials (lumber, sandbags, and barbed wire).

V Ammunition (small-arms ammunition, artillery rounds, hand grenades, explosives, mines, fuzes, detonators, missiles, bombs, and chemical ammunition).

VI Personal demand items; the items that are normally sold through the exchange system (cigarettes, candy, soap, etc., contained in ration supplemental sundries packs).

VII Major end items (final combinations of items that are assembled for their intended use: vehicles, self-propelled artillery pieces, missile launchers, and major weapon systems,the weapons themselves, not the crews).

VIII Medical material (medicines, stretchers, surgical instruments, and medical equipment repair parts).

IX Repair parts and components, including kits and assemblies, and items required for maintenance support of all equipment (batteries, spark plugs, and axles).

X Material required to support nonmilitary programs; the items used to support civil affairs operations (commercial design tractor for use by local civilians, farm tools, etc.).

Miscellaneous Miscellaneous items that do not fit into any of the 10 supply classes (maps, captured enemy materiel, or salvage material).

Supplies are further divided into subclasses that are denoted by adding a letter designation to the Roman numeral supply class designator. For example, class III-A is the descriptor for all petroleum and chemical products used to support aircraft.
e. Categories of supplies. With regard to how supplies are requested and issued, there are three categories of supplies: scheduled, demanded, and regulated.

Scheduled supplies are those for which we can reasonably predict requirements. Normally, users do not need to submit requisitions to replenish scheduled supplies. Requirements are based, for the most part, on troop strength, equipment density, forecasts, and/or daily usage factors. Scheduled supplies are normally shipped to users based on preplanned distribution schemes. Supply classes I, III (bulk), V, and VI are normally treated as scheduled supplies.

(a) Class I and VI (subsistence and personal demand items) requirements are based on troop strength.
(b) Class III (bulk) requirements are based on long-range forecasts, equipment densities, and historical usage factors (experience).
(c) Class V (ammunition) requirements are based on densities of authorized weapons and intensity of mission(s).

Demanded supplies require a requisition. Items in supply classes II, III (packaged), IV, VII, and IX are considered demanded supplies.

Regulated supplies can be scheduled or demanded, but the commander must closely control these supplies because of scarcity, high cost, or mission need. Any item or group of items can be designated as regulated, but normally, some items in supply classes II, III (bulk), IV, V, and VII are regulated. If an item is regulated, the commander who so designates it must approve its release before issue. Items designated as command regulated are identified in operation plans (OPLANs) and OPORDs that are issued during the period of time the items are regulated.

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

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قديم 29-06-09, 09:29 AM

  رقم المشاركة : 7
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THE DISCOM


DISCOM LOGISTIC ORGANIZATION.

a. General. The heavy division usually consists of seven major subordinate commands (MSCs),an aviation brigade, an engineer brigade, a division artillery, a DISCOM, and three maneuver brigades. To accomplish the logistic and CHS missions, DISCOM units deploy throughout the division AO.


b. DISCOM HHC. The DISCOM HQ commands and controls its organic and attached units. It supervises and controls all division-level logistic and CHS operations. It also advises the division commander and staff concerning supply, maintenance, medical, transportation, and field services functions throughout the division. The HQ company provides all necessary administrative, supply, maintenance, and field feeding support for the company and the division materiel management center (DMMC). The division rear CP and the DISCOM CP are normally collocated. The DISCOM provides supply, maintenance, and field service support to division rear CP personnel.



c. DMMC. The DMMC is the primary materiel-managing element in the division. The center receives policy and operational guidance from the DISCOM commander and advises him on materiel (supply and maintenance, less medical) management. Activities include,



! Determining supply requirements.
! Ordering and directing the distribution of supplies the division receives (except class VIII).
! Developing and supervising the division ASLs and PLLs.
! Maintaining the division property book and Army equipment status reporting data.
! Operating all integrated division maintenance management information programs. The DMMC maintains maintenance status, including problems, maintenance requirements, and unit materiel readiness in the division.
! Providing a weapon system manager (WSM) to maximize the number of operational weapon systems available to the fighting forces.



d. Division aviation support battalion (ASB). The ASB is organic to the heavy division DISCOM. The battalion provides aviation maintenance and division-level logistics, less CHS, to the heavy division aviation brigade. A detailed description of the division ASB mission, organization, and functions can be found in FM 63-23.



e. MSB. The MSB is organic to the DISCOM. The battalion provides division-level logistics and CHS to division units located in the division rear. It also provides reinforcing support to the FSBs. A detailed description of the MSB's mission, organization, and functions is in FM 63-21.



f.FSBs. The FSBs are organic to the DISCOM. These units provide division-level logistics and CHS to the brigades and other division units located in the brigade areas. A detailed description of the FSB's mission, organization, and functions is in FM 63-20.



DISCOM LOGISTIC MISSION.

The DISCOM provides division-level logistics and CHS to all organic and attached division elements. The COSCOM's corps support battalion (CSB) operating in the division area will provide CSS to the nondivision units in the division area. The DISCOM commander is the principal division logistic operator. He exercises full command authority over all support command organic units. The division G4 has coordinating staff responsi-bility for logistic planning. He develops division-level plans, policies, and priorities. The relationship between the division G4 and the DISCOM commander must be extremely close because of the similarities of interests. The DISCOM support operations section and the DMMC plan and coordinate to ensure logistic support for all division and attached units.



The DISCOM provides the following CSS:


! Support of class I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, and IX supplies.

! Water purification and limited water distribution.
! Operates ammunition transfer points (ATPs) within the division. Under the maneuver-oriented ammunition distribution system,palletized loading system (MOADS/PLS), the corps DS ammunition company operates the division rear ATP. The DISCOM FSBs operate the BSA ATPs.
! Operates mortuary affairs collection points located in the BSAs and in the division support area (DSA). When augmented by COSCOM, it helps receive and identify remains and helps arrange for evacuation to a mortuary affairs collection point.
!DSM and reinforcing unit maintenance support for all common and missile materiel organic to the division and aviation intermediate maintenance (AVIM) for all aviation materiel.
! Materiel (supply and maintenance) management for the division.
! Transport for personnel, supplies, and equipment to accomplish division logistic and administrative missions. Also provides supplemental ground transportation to support emergency requirements.
! Supervises and coordinates DISCOM transportation operations.
! Automatic data processing (ADP) system software support for division logistic activities.
! Materiel salvage facilities.
! A limited capability to carry reserve supplies.
! Logistic information and advice to the division commander and his staff except for construction.
!Echelon I and II CHS to units assigned and attached to the division. This includes emergency medical care, advanced trauma management, and sick call. It also provides intradivision ground evacuation, emergency dental care, and optometry support. In addition, DSM and unit-level medical maintenance are provided as well as coordinating echelon III (corps) CHS.
! Plans, coordinates, and conducts rear operations within its assigned area of responsibility (AOR).
! Receives, stores, and distributes unclassified maps.


The DISCOM depends on the following:


! Corps transportation to bring supplies forward to the DSA and BSAs (classes IV and V and limitedclass III).
! The division aviation brigade or corps medium helicopter units for airlift needed to support logistic requirements.
! Additional water support distribution.
! Nondivisional field service units for laundry, bath, clothing exchange, and mortuary affairs services (only when there are no authorized organic augmentations).
! Appropriate corps elements for financial, legal, personnel, and administrative services.
! Corps aeromedical evacuation units for aeromedical evacuation support.


DISCOM DEPLOYMENT.



a. General. The mission is the basic consideration in locating CSS units and their facilities. Maintenance, supply, and medical companies and other DISCOM units must be far enough forward to be appropriately responsive to the supported units' requirements. Maintenance, for instance, takes place not only in the BSA but also wherever the weapon system is located, if at all possible. Mechanics and mobile equipment must be there to fix or replace weapon system components. Additional considerations are enemy capability and his proximity to support activities and other potential targets. the deployment of DISCOM units as they may be throughout the DSA and BSAs. BSAs and the DSA normally locate toward the rear of the units they support.



b. BSA. The BSA is that portion of the brigade rear occupied by the FSB, the brigade rear CP, and other units. In those instances where the maneuver battalion trains are echeloned, the battalion field trains are included. The BSA is normally between the DSA and the battalion areas. The BSA is approximately 25 to 30 kilometers behind the forward line of own troops (FLOT). This provides protection against enemy indirect-fire weapons. depicts units normally found in the BSA. Both division and corps units may locate within the BSA. The BSA, interfacing with the brigade S1, the S4, and the FSB, coordinates personnel and logistic support for the brigade. There is direct coordination because the brigade rear CP collocates with the FSB tactical operations center.



The FSB commander is the BSA commander. He must balance the need for security against the need for dispersion. Specific missions, condition of road nets, and disposition of other troops in the area influence the distance between troop units. It may be necessary, because of terrain restrictions or a guerrilla threat, to limit dispersion of logistic facilities even when there is a nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) threat. Ideally, logistic activities disperse far enough to avoid the destruction of more than one unit. However, too much dispersion tends to reduce operational efficiency. It also increases the vulnerability of logistic units to sabotage, pilferage, guerrilla attack, and enemy conventional attack. Defense measures should be taken to ensure the least interruption in support operations.



c. DSA. The DSA is that portion of the division rear occupied by the DISCOM and division rear CPs and many of the units organic and attached to the DISCOM. This area normally contains combat support units and COSCOM elements that support the division. The DISCOM commander is the DSA commander. The division rear CP normally collocates with the DISCOM CP. This helps with coordination, shares area communication assets, and draws life support and security.



The DSA is normally between the division rear boundary and the BSAs, next to air-landing facilities, and near at least one main supply route (MSR). The DSA's precise location is contingent on a number of factors. Some of the major factors are the tactical plans and the location of COSCOM units and the MSRs. The terrain in the AO, security, and access to lines of communication (LOCs) must also be considered. Like units in the BSA, elements within a DSA are dispersed, and each element must be prepared to provide its own protection. Employing passive defense measures, such as dispersion, movement, concealment, cover, camouflage, and deception, reduces detection. Unit SOPs should prescribe active and passive defense measures for personnel, materiel, and installations. DISCOM units in the DSA displace only as necessary to maintain continuous support to the division and for security reasons. If a move is necessary, the DISCOM commander recommends the new location. This is done in close coordination with the division rear CP operations cell.

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

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قديم 29-06-09, 09:32 AM

  رقم المشاركة : 8
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THE FORWARD SUPPORT BATTALION



This battalion has an HHD, a supply company, maintenance company, and medical company. As part of the maintenance company, the FSB is assigned tank, mechanized infantry, and artillery system support teams (SSTs). The FSB maintenance company has one team to support each maneuver battalion assigned to the supported brigade as well as the DS artillery battalion. The FSB's primary role is to provide DS to the brigade and division slice units operating in the brigade area. This role entails a dual requirement. First, the FSB must plan to support future operations. It must anticipate requirements and incorporate planning guidance.



In addition, the FSB must support current operations and monitor the support plan's implementation. This requirement involves continuous coordination. The FSB must actively monitor all support operations in conjunction with the brigade S4. It makes adjustments as required to ensure support requirements are met. For example, it is not enough for the FSB to plan when supported task force heavy expanded mobility tactical trucks (HEMTTs) should pick up fuel. If the HEMTTs do not show up, the FSB must know about it and coordinate with the brigade S4 to find out what the problem is and what it needs to do to resolve it.



The FSB also provides limited support to nondivisional units, such as corps artillery and engineer battalions, located in the brigade AO. The FSB is the single point of contact for support in the brigade AO. However, to support nondivisional units, corps logistic task force elements operating in the division area must augment the FSB. In addition, the FSB is responsible for base cluster defense of the BSA and operates under brigade command for this mission. the FSB layout.



The FSB performs its mission if it supports the brigade's course of action and meets the commander's guidance. Specifically, it supports the brigade and reinforcing/supporting units by providing or coordinating to provide all classes of supply, as well as maintenance, medical, field services, and transportation support, in the amounts and at the times specified in the brigade service support annex and the FSB SOP. It must replenish its supported units' basic loads of all supplies except repair parts. It must also replenish prescribed loads of maintenance-significant class II and IV items and repair parts. Equipment must be maintained to meet prescribed operational levels. Class VII items are distributed in accordance with (IAW) the brigade commander's priorities. The FSB coordinates transportation requirements with the DISCOM's movement control officer (MCO) to meet the brigade's needs. Finally, medical evacuation and treatment operations and field services activities must be coordinated between the brigade and FSB to ensure brigade needs are met. Specific information on the FSB elements appears .



THE MAIN SUPPORT BATTALION.



The MSB is the main logistic and medical operator in the division rear. It supports units in the division rear and provides designated and reinforcing support to the FSBs. The battalion provides DSM, supply, transportation, and medical support to units for a variety of missions. When the battalion is augmented, it also provides field services. Under MOADS/PLS, the MSB does not provide class V support to the division. The MSB effectively manages subordinate units. It also directs and coordinates security for these units.


One MSB is organic to the DISCOM. The command element supervises, directs, and coordinates assigned and attached units that run the support operations in and around the DSA. MSB layout within the DSA. The MSB has the following units:



! HHD.
! S&S company.
! Transportation motor transport (TMT) company.
! Light and heavy maintenance companies.
! Missile support company.
! Medical company.



Commanding, controlling, and coordinating the many MSB elements with their diverse missions present a challenge for the MSB commander and staff. They must perform the logistic tasks of fueling, fixing, moving, and sustaining the soldier. They must integrate these tasks into a comprehensive battle support plan. The thrust is to push CSS as far forward as possible.



Division logistic and medical elements are integrated into the MSB's C2 system. This allows the division to shift its support effort to the critical place and time to influence the battle. For example, MSB elements can and do routinely operate outside of the DSA. Some elements habitually support specific division units. Others may be ad hoc formations to reinforce a main effort sector or an FSB. The DISCOM HQ coordinates support, organizes for combat, assigns locations, and specifies command relationships after thorough consultation with the MSB, DMMC, FSBs, division ASB, and supported units.



The MSB performs its mission if it supports the division's course of action and meets the DISCOM commander's guidance. Specifically, it supports the division rear and reinforces units by providing or coordinating to provide all classes of supply, as well as maintenance, medical, field services, and transportation support, in the amounts and at the times specified in the MSB SOP. It must replenish its supported units' basic loads of all supplies, including repair parts. It must also replenish prescribed loads of maintenance-significant class II and IV items and maintain equipment to meet prescribed operational levels. It distributes class VII items IAW the division commander's priorities. The MSB coordinates transportation requirements with the MCO to meet the division's needs. Finally, it coordinates medical evacuation and treatment operations and field services activities with the DISCOM support operations branch to meet division rear needs. For specific information on the MSB.



THE DIVISION AVIATION SUPPORT BATTALION .



The division ASB has a headquarters and supply company, a ground maintenance company, and an AVIM company. The battalion provides dedicated CSS to the heavy division aviation brigade. During combat operations, the ASB normally is collocated with the aviation brigade. Like the FSB, the ASB must anticipate requirements and incorporate planning guidance to successfully accomplish its mission. Unlike the FSB, the ASB has no medical capability. The aviation brigade and division ASB (normally located in the vicinity of the DSA) receive area medical support from the MSB medical company. Division cavalry ground units receive area medical support from the nearest FSB medical company. The division ASB units' missions follow:



a. The headquarters and supply company provides the aviation brigade with classes I, II, III (for both ground and air), IV, and VII. The division ASB also operates a consolidated battalion mess. This company is not adequately equipped to support the division cavalry squadron's ground units during combat operations. The division cavalry ground units normally will get CSS from the nearest FSB. The division ASB will provide CSS to division cavalry aviation units.



b. The ground maintenance company provides the aviation brigade with ground vehicle maintenance, consolidated class IX for air and ground repair parts, an MST for the division cavalry squadron, backup ground vehicle recovery and evacuation, and consolidated unit maintenance for the division ASB.



c. The AVIM company consists of a helicopter systems repair platoon, an aircraft maintenance repair platoon, an aircraft services/fuel section, an armament/avionics repair platoon, production and quality control sections, and a maintenance test flight section. The aircraft maintenance company provides the aviation brigade with AVIM support, aircraft recovery, and backup aviation unit maintenance (AVUM) support.

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

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قديم 29-06-09, 07:16 PM

  رقم المشاركة : 9
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THE COSCOM



INTRODUCTION
a. General. the COSCOM's and CSGs' organizations, missions, and functions, respectively. The COSCOM provides logistics support to the corps. It enables the corps to sustain high levels of combat over the duration of major operations. Its battlefield support mission enables the corps commander to generate combat power at the decisive time and place. The COSCOM does this by

Arming corps weapon systems.
Fueling stationary equipment, tracked/wheeled vehicles, and aircraft.
Fixing damaged equipment.
Moving soldiers, equipment, and supplies about the battlefield.
Sustaining the soldier.
Protecting the support structure.

b. Supporting the corps battle. The COSCOM maintains the support structure and supply levels to sustain the corps. It may support either a forward-deployed corps in an established theater of operations or a contingency corps force deployed to an underdeveloped theater.

c. Support AO and depth of support. The corps AO encompasses an area of roughly 100 by 210 kilometers, or 21,000 square kilometers (see figure 3-1). These distances extend the lines of support. The COSCOM habitually employs units farther forward than it ever did in the past. Units that previously employed closer to the corps rear boundary now employ forward near division rear boundaries. Units that employed forward in the corps rear area now employ in the division AO. By also maintaining resources in depth, the COSCOM can weight the battle for the corps commander by realigning its resources throughout the corps area following corps priorities of support.

COSCOM SUPPORT MISSION AND FUNCTIONS

a. General. The COSCOM provides logistics support to the corps and, when directed, to either a unified, specified, joint, or combined force. The latter support occurs when the corps forms senior US Army command in the theater. The COSCOM executes the corps support plan. The COSCOM provides,

DS and GS supply support to nondivision units and GS supplies to divisions, separate brigades, and armored cavalry regiments (ACRs). Supply support includes ammunition; class III; water (GS in arid regions); classes I, II, and IV; repair parts; major end item replacement; airdrop; and reinforcing supply support to the FSBs/MSBs.
Service support, including mortuary affairs, SLCR, and tactical post exchange.
DSM and AVIM to nondivision units; reinforcing DSM and AVIM to divisions, separate brigades, and ACRs; and missile-rocket maintenance support.
Transportation support, including mode operations, movement control, terminal operations, cargo transfer operations, and airdrop support.
Medical treatment, hospitalization, evacuation, logistics, patient regulating, and medical services support.



b. Corpswide support. COSCOM logistics elements position in depth to minimize the effect of threat attacks on the overall logistics effort and allow for weighting the corps commander's efforts to gain and maintain the initiative. COSCOM functional battalions provide corpswide support. Transportation battalions provide intra- and intercorps transportation support. The petroleum supply battalion, ammunition battalion, and S&S battalion provide class III, V, and general supplies corpswide, respectively, supplying the bulk distribution systems. The S&S battalion also provides corpswide mortuary affairs, airdrop, and SLCR support. The AVIM battalion provides corpswide AVIM support. In an arid region, the water supply battalion provides potable water throughout the corps area.

c. Area support. The COSCOM assigns area support missions to its subordinate CSGs and the medical brigade. CSG subordinate direct support units (DSUs) provide support on an area basis to units located in or passing through their AOR. Medical brigade medical groups provide level I and II CHS on an area basis to nondivision units lacking organic CHS and reinforce division level II CHS. In contrast to dedicated unit support, area support unit work loads depend on corps maneuver and positioning of units requiring support.

Within the division area. The COSCOM normally provides area support to nondivision units whether they employ in the corps rear area or in the division area. This precludes generating an excessive work load on DISCOM MSBs/FSBs and provides a single support point of contact for supported units. However, nondivision units employed in the division area, which could number around 8,000 soldiers in a heavy division AO, may receive area support in one of several ways.
From the DISCOM MSB/FSBs, but only within the DISCOM's capabilities. This normally occurs when the number of nondivision troops and their support requirements are very limited (one or two battalion *****alents).
If the nondivision requirements exceed DISCOM capabilities, the COSCOM could augment the MSBs/FSBs with corps assets to enable the DISCOM to provide area support to the nondivision units. This support arrangement limits the number of support locations that must be established within the division area.
Finally, the COSCOM normally supports nondivision units deployed within division boundaries, of the number noted above, through a CSB providing area support in the division area. The CSB establishes forward logistics points in the MSB/FSB area through coordinating with the appropriate terrain managers.

Within a new division area. When nondivision units move to a new division area, area support continues in the same manner as described above from the new DISCOM and CSB. Assets from the previously supporting CSB and CSG may accompany the nondivision units to their new AO.

d. Out-of-sector support. When nondivision units move to a new corps AO, area support continues. Support requirements and assets are coordinated and transferred as required. When corps units move out of an Army AO, a different method of support is used. The COSCOM forms a support element/slice, usually a CSB task force, to accompany the corps units to the new AO. The task force's size and composition vary depending on the destination. The task force supporting corps forces in a sister service or allied area is normally larger and more diverse than one supporting in a new corps area. The task force supporting in an allied AO normally must be able to support all corps force requirements, including medical evacuation. In the case of either a sister service or allied area, a reliable and responsive line of support and transportation network must be established to supply the support task force. Area support may also be required along the route of march, including refueling on the move (ROM) and maintenance and recovery/evacuation assistance.

e. Mission support to other services and allies. The COSCOM provides logistics support to other services and allies taking part in a joint or combined operation. It routinely provides JP-4/JP-8 to the Air Force. It may provide food, water, common ammunition items, mortuary affairs services, petroleum laboratory support, and ground transportation support to Marine amphibious forces, Navy elements operating ashore, and the Air Force. Based on agreements with allied nations, the COSCOM may support a host of requirements common to both parties.

COSCOM SUPPORT ORGANIZATION

a. General. The COSCOM support organization depends on the number of soldiers to support, the number and types of weapon systems to repair, and the tonnage of supplies to issue and transport. As figure 3-2 shows, the COSCOM consists of a headquarters and special troops battalion, functional control centers, a variable number of CSGs, a medical brigade, and a transportation group under certain conditions.

The corps commander assigns or attaches units to the COSCOM. The number and types of units vary based on the corps force's logistics requirements. The COSCOM further attaches units to its MSCs. The corps commander may attach civil affairs or chemical units to the COSCOM's headquarters and special troops battalion. To effectively support the theater commander's operational plans, the TA commander may attach logistics units to the COSCOM from TA resources, including theater army area commands (TAACOMs).

b. Functional control centers. Functional control centers implement COSCOM policies and directives. The corps materiel management center (CMMC) centrally manages and controls supply and maintenance. The corps movement control center (CMCC) provides centralized movement management and highway regulation for the corps. The centers task COSCOM subordinate units.

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

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قديم 29-06-09, 07:22 PM

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CORPS SUPPORT GROUPS


a. General. CSG headquarters provide command, control, staff planning, and supervision of three to seven subordinate logistics battalions. The COSCOM task organizes CSGs to meet the needs of supported forces based on the scheme of maneuver the corps G3 establishes and the CSGs' forward or rear employment missions. While there is no standard CSG organizational structure, the forward CSG consists of multifunctional CSBs providing direct and general support. The rear CSG consists of one or more CSBs providing DS and functional battalions providing GS.

b. Forward CSGs. Forward CSGs serve as the source of logistics support (less medical) for all corps organizations within their AOR. They provide forward support on an area basis to nondivision forces operating in the division AO, either directly through a CSB or indirectly by augmenting or reinforcing MSBs/FSBs. They provide area support to nondivision units behind the division's rear boundary, and GS supply and reinforcing DSM and field services support to divisions, separate brigades, and ACRs. Usually one forward CSG is allocated per committed division AO.

Each forward CSG employs a tailored CSB in the division area to provide responsive support to forward-employed nondivision forces. Unlike the DISCOM's fixed-structure MSB and FSB supporting division elements, the CSB is task organized to provide DS-level supply, services, and maintenance support to corps forces operating in the division area. The CSB reduces the command, control, and communications problems caused by long distances between supported nondivisional elements and supporting corps units otherwise located in the corps rear area. Though employed in the division area and merged with division bases or base clusters for rear operations security, the CSB remains under the forward CSG's command and control. Terrain management and highway regulation are coordinated with the division.

The remaining CSBs of each forward CSG employ behind the division rear boundary. They consist of both GS- and DS-level units to support nondivision forces in their assigned AOR as well as provide GS and reinforcing DS to the division, any separate brigades, and the ACR if employed in their AOR. One of these CSBs can provide the nucleus to support regeneration operations.

c. Rear CSG. A rear CSG is allocated per COSCOM. The rear CSG provides corpswide support and reinforcing support to the forward CSGs. Like the forward CSGs, it provides area support to units employed in or passing through its AOR. It can also provide the nucleus of logistics regeneration support in the corps rear area. The rear CSG may consist of multifunctional CSBs, functional battalions, and a base support battalion.

The rear CSG's CSBs provide DS-level area support to units in or passing through its AOR. These include hospitals, replacement units, signal units, corps HQ elements, and corps units supporting a reserve division. A CSB may also be tailored to provide regeneration support in the corps rear area.

The rear CSG's functional battalions provide corpswide logistics support to divisions, separate brigades, and ACRs as well as reinforcing support to the forward CSGs. The petroleum supply battalion, ammunition battalion, and S&S battalion maintain the corps reserve stocks. These stocks enable the corps commander to support combat and provide the surge capability to win in battle. The transportation battalions support the supply and replacement distribution systems. The AVIM battalion provides corpswide AVIM support and reinforcing AVUM. In an arid environment, a water supply battalion provides corpswide GS-level water supply.

Theater dependent, a base support battalion maintains facilities in caretaker status for future reactivation to provide base operations support.

d. TA dependence. The COSCOM depends on TA general support units (GSUs) (heavy materiel supply companies, repair parts supply companies, and general supply companies) to resupply its subordinate GSUs. This dependence is particularly significant during reconstitution operations when the CMMC will arrange for push packages of class VII items and class IX repair parts required specifically for the units being reconstituted. The COSCOM also depends on TA transportation assets to supplement the corps transportation system assets. It depends on the general support maintenance (GSM) units to repair items beyond DSM unit capability for return to the supply system. If the CMMC's automation capability is disrupted, the COSCOM may depend on the theater army materiel management center (TAMMC) or TAACOM materiel management center (MMC), as written in the OPLAN, for continuity of operations.

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

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قديم 29-06-09, 07:34 PM

  رقم المشاركة : 11
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MEDICAL BRIGADE


The medical brigade provides treatment, hospitalization, evacuation, logistics, patient regulating, PM, psychiatric, laboratory, dental, and veterinary support to the corps. The medical brigade HQ task organizes the COSCOM medical assets to meet the patient work load and CHS requirements corps forces generate. Medical assets are task organized under subordinate medical groups normally employed geographically in the corps rear area and directly under the brigade HQ. The medical brigade mission, functions, and organization are covered in more detail in chapter 9, section II.

TRANSPORTATION GROUP

A transportation group could be attached to the COSCOM to provide command, control, and staff planning if three or more functional transportation battalions are included in the corps force structure. The number of transportation battalions in the force structure is normally based on the number of truck and terminal operating units providing corpswide support under the rear CSG, not on those assigned or attached to forward CSGs.

SUPPORT TO DIVISIONS, SEPARATE BRIGADES, AND ACRs

DISCOMs, support battalions, and support squadrons provide most of the required logistics support. However, they depend on the COSCOM for GS-level supplies, medical supplies, evacuation and reinforcing medical treatment support, reinforcing DSM and AVIM, transportation and airdrop support, mortuary affairs support, and secondary field services support (such as SLCR). MSBs and FSBs rely on COSCOM augmentation or reinforcement to support nondivision units employed in their areas.

SUPPORT TO HEAVY DIVISIONS

Corps transportation assets deliver GS-level supplies to division DSU supply points and maintenance units. Division units go to their supporting supply point to pick up their supplies. In contrast, the COSCOM delivers class IV barrier or fortification material directly to emplacement sites and aviation fuel directly to division and corps aviation elements. When necessary, the corps airdrops critical fuels, ammunition, repair parts, rations, and blood supplies.

COSCOM DSM units or AVIM units provide reinforcing maintenance support to division DSM and AVIM units. The corps G4 determines the priority of maintenance support. The COSCOM may attach MSTs to a division, separate brigade, or ACR.

DS field services companies provide SLCR support to division as well as nondivision troops. The collection company in the BSA and DSA will establish a forward collection point to begin the mortuary affairs collection and evacuation process.

Corps ambulances evacuate patients from division treatment stations to corps hospitals. The medical brigade provides reinforcing treatment, dental, and PM support. The Medical Logistics (MEDLOG) Bn (Fwd) builds prepackaged resupply sets of consumable medical supplies to support division requirements.

In addition to supporting the supply distribution system from the corps GS level to division DSUs, corps truck units support personnel and heavy equipment movement and cargo transfer operations in the division.

SUPPORT TO LIGHT DIVISIONS

a. General. The light infantry division (LID), airborne division, and air assault division require more logistics support from the COSCOM than heavy divisions. These divisions perform only essential logistics support and CHS functions and stock only mission-essential supplies with their organic assets. They depend heavily on corps and echelon above corps (EAC) units to provide resupply to the DISCOM, reinforcing DSM, transportation, medical support, SLCR, and airdrop support.

The LID requires more throughput from the corps rear area to the BSA due to the MSB's limited capability to resupply FSBs. However, the COSCOM cannot throughput too many supplies or it will overwhelm the LID's limited ability to move assets around the battlefield.

Light division maintenance support and capabilities are limited. They rely on replacement versus repair of components and pass an increased maintenance work load to nondivision DSM units.

LID and airborne divisions place heavy transportation requirements on the COSCOM for personnel, cargo, and airdrop support.

The COSCOM provides CHS augmentation, including positioning medical evacuation assets forward.
b. LID augmentation. Although the LID was designed for low-intensity conflict and was limited on total personnel, projected combat intensities quickly drive support requirements beyond LID DISCOMs' organic capabilities. Specific COSCOM elements have been designed or identified to perform required functions to offset these excessive work loads. This augmented support, over and above the normal COSCOM support organization, is sometimes referred to as the "corps slice." The following corps teams, detachments, and platoons augment the LID support organization:

The LID QM supply support detachment provides materiel management support functions and performs data processing-related processes beyond the LID's organic capabilities. It may either collocate with the CMMC or the LID's DISCOM.

The light/medium truck company offsets the driver shortfall in the LID that results from allocating only one driver per vehicle for single-shift operations.

The LID missile support team from the corps DS missile support maintenance company augments the division missile support capability. LID missile maintenance support is limited to reparable exchange (RX) with repairs being performed at corps.

The LID AVIM support team is attached to a COSCOM AVIM company to offset an estimated 21 percent of the AVIM work load passed back to the corps.

The LID MST augments an estimated 20 percent of the ground maintenance work load passed back to a nondivision DSM company providing DS to a LID.

The perishable subsistence platoon assigned to the COSCOM general supply company augments the LID's MSB, providing A- and B-ration storage and issue capability.

The LID graves registration team augments the MSB. This team can process 79 remains per day, perform search and recovery as required, and operate a collection and evacuation point. Fielding of the corps mortuary affairs collection company will eliminate this augmentation.

The hot/arid environment water team provides potable water storage and distribution system assets in arid regions.

SUPPORT TO SEPARATE BRIGADES AND ACRs

Similar to support to divisions, the COSCOM provides medical, GS supply, reinforcing DSM, field services, and transportation support to separate brigades and ACRs. When one of these corps forces employs in advance of a corps-sized force, elements of a forward CSG deploy to provide support. The support could consist of a forward logistics element formed by a forward CSB or a full tailored CSB depending on the force's requirements. In either case, a forward CSB and the CSG provide all required DS- and GS-level support, including heavy-equipment transporter (HET) movement support to the separate brigade or ACR.

If a separate brigade or ACR deploys in an allied force area adjacent to US forces, forward CSG/CSB support elements from the adjacent US forces provide out-of-sector support. They may support from their sector if an adequate line of support can be established, or they may deploy with the corps force to augment the support battalion or squadron capabilities.

HOST NATION SUPPORT (HNS)

HNS includes civilian and military support services the host nation (HN) furnishes to forces stationed on HN territory during peace and war. HNS helps to offset manpower, equipment, and supply requirements. It is the preferred method of meeting unsatisfied military support requirements. In times of crisis, using HNS will significantly reduce the time required to deploy and establish US reinforcing units.

The two categories of HNS that offset US requirements are direct HNS and indirect HNS. Direct HNS consists of HN military or paramilitary units organized similarly to US units. This HNS relates to comparable US organizations and capabilities. Indirect wartime HNS refers to support that is anticipated based on agreements with the host country. The type and volume of HNS services provided will depend on agreements between the nations involved and the host nation's actual capabilities. Unless other provisions apply, the United States will reimburse costs.

Due to the proximity of combat operations, only the HN military should perform some HNS functions. HN civilian firms may provide bath, laundry, and bakery services. HN buildings and facilities, as well as transportation and distribution systems, can offset logistics support requirements, particularly in port areas. The COSCOM Assistant Chief of Staff (ACofS), Support Operations Procurement Support Branch, should consider these areas when planning and requesting HNS. It should conduct a risk assessment to determine the impact should planned logistic area HNS not be available.

COSCOM ACofS, Support Operations Procurement Support Branch, personnel manage and coordinate HNS that has been negotiated and agreed upon by the host nation in peacetime and is expected to be provided in wartime to support the COSCOM's logistics mission. The COSCOM ACofS, G5 section personnel manage and coordinate available HNS for COSCOM units. As appropriate, section personnel manage and coordinate any additional ad hoc HNS the appropriate HN authorities have agreed upon. They coordinate requirements with civil affairs teams, the corps G5, and subordinate CSGs.

To support contingency operations, an HNS coordination team (contingency) can be assigned to the task force's senior logistics HQ. This team locates, obtains, and coordinates available HNS resources. It coordinates closely with the civil affairs organization operating with the contingency force. The team obtains HNS resources through local purchase or contracts and coordinates with finance and legal activities to execute HNS contracts.

JOINT OPERATION SUPPORT

Corps forces can operate as part of a joint task force. As the corps logistics command, the COSCOM supports corps units conducting joint operations. The COSCOM assumes the role of theater-level logistics manager and operator in a single corps contingency situation. While each military service provides its own logistics support in principle, the joint task force commander normally tasks the dominant user to provide or coordinate support for all service components. The commander in chief (CINC) allocates critical logistics assets among services and issues directives to transfer logistics functions between service components.

COSCOM CONTROL CENTERS

a. CMMC. The CMMC centrally controls all GS supply within the corps. It also manages DSM support operations. CMMC commodity managers perform centralized stock management of a specific supply class. Materiel managers provide consolidated materiel management of a specific commodity. They manage supply classes by exception using selective controls. Commodity managers compile, interpret, and report data to the appropriate logistics branch in the COSCOM's support operations section. Centralized management uses input from automated management information systems and communications to interface with the movement control center (MCC). FM 54-23 provides additional information on the CMMC.
CMMC mission. The CMMC performs integrated materiel management for the corps for all classes of supply [except medical supply, classified communications security (COMSEC), and classified maps]. Integrated materiel management involves computing requirements, establishing stockage levels, directing and distributing procurement, disposal, and developing guidance for maintenance priorities. The CMMC also performs maintenance management for all assigned or attached maintenance activities.

Split-base operations. The CMMC must be able to displace in increments to provide onsite materiel management support of a force-projection response to a crisis, from the force's initial entry into theater through the culmination of operations. The remaining part of the CMMC remains in a secure sanctuary installation location. The home-based main CMMC is augmented with table of distribution and allowances (TDA)-authorized civilians. The CMMC element in the sanctuary area processes the requirements for units in the sanctuary area and for those activities the forward CMMC elements support. Assured communication between the forward and sanctuary-based CMMC elements is required. A military or commercial system may provide the link.

b. CMCC. The CMCC provides centralized movement control and highway regulation. It uses its subordinate movement control teams (MCTs) and movement regulating teams to commit and allocate corps transportation assets. In response to unusual transportation support requirements, the CMCC controls transportation assets in truck companies attached to TMT battalions or CSBs. The CMCC is discussed in detail in chapter 4.

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

رد مع اقتباس

قديم 29-06-09, 08:23 PM

  رقم المشاركة : 12
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MOVING THE FORCE




TRANSPORTATION SERVICE



Within an AO, transportation organizations provide support in three basic functional areas: mode operations, terminal operations, and movements management services.



a. Mode operations include physically moving personnel or materiel on a transportation conveyance. The basic modes of transportation are air, rail, road, and water transport. Pipeline is often referred to as a mode of transportation; however, since the transportation organization does not plan, manage, or operate pipelines, they will not be addressed in this summary.



b. Terminal operations consist of shifting cargo from one mode of transportation to a different mode or from one type of transport within a mode to a different type at an intermediate point within the transportation system. A transportation system's effectiveness depends on the efficiency of the terminal facilities that support it. There are two types of terminal operations: terminal service operations and terminal transfer operations.



Terminal service operations support water terminals at either established ports or logistics- over-the-shore operations (LOTS) sites. Transportation terminal service units load, unload, and transship cargo to support the port operations. They also sort cargo by destination and prepare all required ********ation to account for cargo moving through the terminal.



(a) Division modal operations include aviation and truck. The G3 controls aviation assets. The division transportation officer (DTO) coordinates CSS employment of aviation assets with the G3.



(b) The number and types of units assigned to the TMT battalions are variable.



c) The number of movement control teams (MCTs) and movement regulating teams (MRTs) assigned to the MCC is variable.



d) Terminal service and railway operating capabilities may be assigned to the COSCOM as required when a corps is operating independently.



(e) The corps or TA will provide required terminal operations within a division's AO.




Terminal transfer operations include transshipping cargo at air, rail, motor, and inland barge terminals. This includes unloading, segregating, temporarily holding, ********ing, and loading cargo whenever a change in mode occurs



Movements management involves two major functions: transportation movement and highway regulation



Transportation movements management includes the staff planning and coordination required to use the transportation system effectively to move personnel and materiel to the right place, at the right time, and by the most economical means. This management is concerned with planning, coordinating, programming, monitoring, and supervising the allocation and use of the available transportation resources to meet the command's movement requirements. The transportation aspects and logistic readiness actions are continually reviewed, analyzed, and evaluated. This coordination is accomplished through the CMCC and its MCTs to coordinate the movements management program in support of the corps



The MRT established at locations of high-volume traffic (such as supply activities and terminals) performs highway regulation. The MCT acts as the interface between the transportation system users (customers), the mode operators, and the management system))






Division and corps transportation requests



Transportation movements management is centralized at the highest organizational level to maintain flexibility of support and obtain maximum efficiency and effectiveness. The CMCC coordinates and monitors shipments within the corps area. The MCC is the nerve center of the transportation system where movement requirements are received and analyzed, where transportation resources are allocated, and where resources are committed to satisfy these movement requirements. Most corps movement planning and programming are accomplished at the CMCC

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

رد مع اقتباس

قديم 29-06-09, 08:31 PM

  رقم المشاركة : 13
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CORPS TRANSPORTATION OPERATIONS


a. Movements management.



The CMCC implements the corps movement program. It will allocate corps transportation assets according to the priorities established in the corps movement program. The program will be developed based on known movement requirements by class and type of supply required in the corps area. The MCC will consolidate and tabulate requirements by class of supply, tonnage, and movement program line number. It will match requirements to transport capabilities and the mode selected.



The MCC receives requests for priority nonprogrammed movement requirements. It verifies the requirements with the origin MCT. If necessary, the MCC may make adjustments to the corps movement program. The MCC directs the origin MCT to coordinate with the destination MCT to confirm receiving capabilities and to obtain a transportation movement release. The destination MCT coordinates with the shipping unit to ensure the movement is completed by the required delivery date.



The COSCOM ACofS, Support Operations, Transportation Branch, chief validates competing priorities. Transportation priorities are based on the Uniform Materiel Movement and Issue Priority System (UMMIPS). MCTs ensure that the transportation priority is correct. If necessary, MCOs identify programmed movements that can be delayed and recommend relocating transportation support assets.



When possible, alternative modes and other assets within the corps area will be used. If not available, the MCC requests assistance from the theater army movement control agency (TAMCA). When requirements exceed transportation capabilities, supply and transportation priorities will be combined to provide the basis for allocating transport assets.



The MCC coordinates highway use for all movements originating in, terminating in, or transiting the corps area. It coordinates movements coming into and leaving the corps with the DTO and the TAMCA. The MCC also coordinates with movement officers at all levels to ensure the receiving and unloading capabilities of supported units in the division and corps areas are not exceeded and that visibility of cargo in transit is provided.



The CMCC will coordinate circulation and security missions with the MP brigade. The MP brigade ensures that authorized traffic moves smoothly, quickly, and with little interference along the MSR. It routes traffic to meet changes in the situation, enforces MSR regulations, and reconnoiters MSRs.



MCTs process requests for programmed or nonprogrammed movement and convoy clearance requests to the MCC's highway traffic HQ. That HQ notifies the origin MCT of the movement credit and number. The MCTs then forward the convoy clearance to the requesting unit. MCTs also forward requests exceeding mode capability to the MCC. After the transportation mode has been selected, MCTs issue a transportation movement release number and instructions to the shipping unit concerning shipping and handling. They also ensure that shipping units consolidate partial load shipments where practical.




As necessary, MCTs expedite handling frustrated cargo due to missing or improper s, improper packaging, or mixing noncompatible hazardous material. Requests for follow-up, shipment status, or tracing will be submitted to the MCT that originally scheduled the shipment. The requesting unit must provide the shipment's transportation control number. To ensure effective use of transportation assets, MCTs coordinate the arrival and spotting of transportation assets to be as close together as possible. They will forward reports of movement status on cargo shipping actions (cargo held, diverted, reconsigned, transferred, traced, or expedited cargo) to the MCC.



MCTs will also maintain an inventory of containers and submit the status of containers arriving and departing within their AOR to the MCC. They coordinate with mode operators to ensure that assets arrive at the required time and check with the shipping unit to ensure prompt transportation assets. If required, MCTs arrange sensitive cargo movement.



If the mode is by air, MCTs will coordinate the cargo transfer from an aircraft to surface modes. As required, they will designate temporary storage sites for cargo requiring breakbulk. Destination MCTs will coordinate with receiving units to ensure the availability of transportation assets is not reduced due to unloading delays. As necessary, they will spot-check unloading procedures.



MRTs coordinate authorized traffic movement. They report to the MCC on vehicle and convoy movement along routes. They also report disruptions in traffic flow due to vehicle breakdown, road conditions, or enemy action. As necessary, they adjust movement schedules and change truck or convoy routing. They then notify convoys of changes in routing and rate of march. MRTs also provide convoy commanders the latest intelligence on route conditions, possible threat action, and air or artillery support availability.



(a) Traffic circulation planning. This plan graphically portrays the road network and how it is to be used and maintained.


The plan normally includes restrictive route features; route designations; direction of movement; and locations of boundaries, units, highway regulating points, traffic control points, and major supply or shipping activities.



(b) Traffic routing. Traffic is routed over designated routes to balance the vehicle and route characteristics (road surfaces, curves, and bridge capacities) and to reduce traffic congestion or conflicts.



c) Traffic scheduling. Traffic scheduling is coordinating times for movement along specified routes to satisfy command movement priorities; minimize delays, conflicts, and congestion; and promote security and passive defense.



b. Mode and terminal operations.



COSCOM transportation forms the critical link in the theater distribution system. The actual organization depends on forecasted work load and units available in the force structure. A transportation group HQ is required when three or more transportation battalions are included in the force structure



The transportation organization is structured to move cargo, equipment, and personnel by various modes of transport and provides transport resources in support of campaigns and major operations. It needs to move maneuver units on the battlefield as well as reposition the corps support structure. HNS can help offset shortfalls in US transportation units



Motor transportation units consist of a variable number of truck companies and cargo transfer companies. The COSCOM commander attaches them to his subordinate CSGs or transportation group for allocation/reallocation to CSBs and transportation battalions. FM 55-30 describes truck unit operations



The transportation battalion attached to the rear CSG provides direct as well as general support to corps nondivision units and reinforcing support to assigned divisions. It also provides throughput distribution as far forward as the BSA. When employed to support an independent corps operation, the battalion may need to operate the transportation service from the waterline to forward areas of combat. This situation requires that the troop list include terminal and rail units from an EAC rail or terminal battalion



Light-medium truck companies move general cargo in support of the corps. They primarily operate to support the COSCOM's internal needs in the corps rear



Medium truck companies are allocated to CSBs or transportation battalions. They haul containerized and breakbulk ammunition and general cargo within the corps rear area and to supply points located in the DSA/BSA



Heavy truck companies move heavy or outsized cargo and vehicles such as tanks, howitzers, and personnel carriers. HETs support operational and tactical mobility. HETs move heavy armored forces from a port of debarkation (POD) to an initial assembly area in the corps rear area. HETs also move heavy armored forces with slice elements from corps or division areas as far forward as mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time available (METT-T) factors will permit. Using HETs to move heavy armored forces reduces fuel requirements en route. It also reduces the maintenance work load due to fewer system breakdowns en route. Weapon systems are functional and crews are rested and prepared to fight. HETs may also support evacuation and weapon system replacement operations (WSRO). When HETs perform a battlefield evacuation role, they move as far forward as the most forward collection point operated by the maintenance company in the brigade area. Due to the low density of these assets, the HET company is not normally placed in a DS role



Cargo transfer companies transship cargo at air, rail, motor, and inland barge terminals. This includes unloading, segregating, temporarily holding, and loading cargo whenever a change in mode occurs



Trailer transfer point teams (TOE 55540LE00) are attached to the transportation battalion. They receive, segregate, assemble, and dispatch loaded or empty semitrailers for onward movement IAW CMCC-directed priorities. They also provide emergency refueling and minor repairs for arriving vehicles



Depending on the theater, a US terminal transfer cellular logistics team (CLT) (TOE 55510LA00) could be allocated. This CLT provides liaison and serves as the interface in joint terminal transfer operations with HNS terminal transfer units. Based on the mission of HNS terminal transfer units, the CLT may operate at a railhead, airhead, seaport, inland waterway port, or depot. Though assigned to the COSCOM and attached to a CSG, the team collocates with the HNS transportation battalion and terminal transfer units. The HQ section collocates with the HNS transportation battalion HQ, serving as the HNS battalion logistic operations section. The two company sections collocate with HN terminal transfer companies. They serve as a portion of the terminal transfer company's operations section. CLT personnel



Provide operational mission coordination (taskings) to the HNS transportation battalion



Consolidate and forward transportation management reports from HN units to the CMCC



Coordinate mission taskings between the CMCC and HN terminal transfer units



Maintain visibility of intransit US shipments and supplies, providing status reports through US channels/organizations



Divert cargo when the CMCC directs



Assist HN personnel in preparing US



Provide technical guidance for loading US cargo on HN equipment



An MCT passes taskings for transportation and terminal transfer support via an HN liaison officer (LO) team collocated with the MCT. The CLT headquarters section receives the terminal transfer tasking order with assigned transportation movement release number and relays the tasking information to the wartime host nation support (WHNS) transportation battalion S3. The WHNS terminal transfer company operations section tasks transfer platoons with the mission and provides cargo information. The CLT company sections assist with cargo ********ation. Based on input from the MCT/CMCC, the CLT may alter transportation movement priority of shipments



DIVISION TRANSPORTATION OPERATIONS



The DISCOM's principal transportation asset is the MSB TMT company. Its mission is to provide truck transportation to distribute supplies and to move heavy and outsized vehicles and cargo. It also provides vehicles to help division elements needing supplemental transportation, including class V emergency unit distribution



The DISCOM MCO centrally controls division motor transport vehicle employment and coordinates priorities with the DTO. To the extent practicable, every transportation dispatch should serve two purposes. For example, trucks that transport supplies and personnel forward to supported units also, on the return trip, bring back damaged and captured equipment, salvage, and prisoners of war (PWs)



The TMT company is usually located close to the MSB headquarters near mainland LOCs. The TMT company's mission is to



Provide truck transportation to move supplies from the DSA to the BSA



Transport division reserve supplies for which the MSB is responsible



Furnish vehicles to assist division elements with requirements for supplemental transportation, including emergency unit distribution of class V supplies



The DTO plans and establishes movement priorities based on the division commander's overall mission priorities. The division G3 assigns motor transportation mission priorities for tactical support and the G4 for logistic support. The DTO is the staff's communications link for transportation between the division and the corps. The DTO gives the DISCOM MCO broad policy guidance and basic plans and policies. He also provides staff supervision and assistance in transportation matters concerning all modes of transport. The MCO controls motor transportation asset employment and allocated CSS air assets within the division. The DTO coordinates with the G3 and the division aviation officer to allocate division air assets. All users forward their transportation requirements within the division to the MCO. Transportation capabilities are then balanced against requirements and division-level priorities. When routine requirements exceed available division motor transport capabilities, the MCO requests additional transport support through a supporting MCT. The DTO will still request all required nondivisional air support and nonroutine motor transport requirements from the MCC )if a supporting MCT cannot meet requirements)



There must be close and continuous coordination between the MCO and the DISCOM S2/S3, the DTO, the MCC, the MCT, the FSB support operations section, and the provost marshal's office operations officer. The MCO is the link between the division transportation mode operators and the division transportation users



AIRLIFT RESUPPLY SUPPORT



Air resupply is accomplished using both air-land and airdrop. Although Army and Air Force assets are both used for these delivery methods, the Air Force performs most of the airdrop missions. The air-land delivery method is preferred because it does not require special airdrop equipment or rigging. The Army, however, furnishes the airdrop equipment and prepares the loads for airdrop missions. The request procedures for both airdrop and air-land resupply are the same. Airlift request procedures must be responsive and flexible to accommodate deliberate and rapidly changing situations. The planners must direct their efforts to optimally use scarce and vital airlift assets


The Air Force supplements the Army's transportation capability within a theater of operations. At each level of command, staff elements are designated to control and manage transportation asset use (motor, rail, and Army aviation) and to monitor Air Force airlift requirements. The corps transportation officer, under the corps G4's staff supervision, performs these critical transportation staff functions and integrates airlift requirements into the overall corps transportation requirements



The ACofS, Support Operations, Transportation Support Branch, chief, COSCOM, supervises the CMCC that, in turn, controls all CSS transportation movement activities in the corps sector. Transportation Support Branch personnel also validate airlift requests generated within the corps. The transportation requests are considered validated when forwarded through designated channels to the next command echelon for subsequent validation or to the transportation unit for execution. For reinforcement, the DTO in a division normally validates preplanned airlift requests while the G3 staff personnel validate immediate airlift requests. At corps, the MCC validates preplanned airlift requests. Coordinating or special staff agencies may receive authority to validate immediate requests to facilitate the request process



Tactical operations and special missions use preplanned airlift support when sufficient time is available to schedule necessary assets. Immediate requests result from unanticipated, urgent, or priority requirements. These requirements may be met by providing aircraft on a quick-reaction basis at designated locations, by diverting or canceling preplanned missions, or by generating a standing sortie. Therefore, an emergency airlift mission may use a preplanned airlift sortie; however, it would normally be filled by an immediate mission using the highest priority the theater commander establishes. Ground force requirements for airlift normally originate as requests for transportation or resupply support. The S3/G3 develops the requirements for airlift and coordinates its use when requesting airlift for tactical air movements. The S4/G4 processes the actual request for air transport to support the air movement through logistic channels.

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

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قديم 29-06-09, 08:34 PM

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TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROCESS



The transportation planning process must be followed regardless of the type of transportation planning being done. First, determine what must be moved. Second, determine what transportation resources are available. Third, balance requirements against resources. Fourth, determine shortfalls and critical points and apply priorities. Fifth, and most important, coordinate the plan with all units affected. The transportation planner must determine what the units need and then attempt to develop a transportation network to satisfy those needs.



a. Determining requirements



Each requirement to move troops or supplies generates at least one requirement for transportation. Initial transportation requirements can be expressed in terms of tonnage (or numbers of personnel) and distance. In the later stages of planning, the tonnages become classes of supply or even distinct items



The transportation planner provides adequate transportation support for the operation. He estimates total requirements based on the supplies required to support the forces and distances involved. This estimate serves as a point of departure. It functions as a general check on whether the requirements the users submitted are realistic



Some requirements may be within the capability of transport organic to the requesting unit. The planner must determine the extent of such capabilities and urge their use



Special requirements will be generated when the corps includes an airborne or air assault division. These divisions have limited organic transport capabilities. Therefore, when committed to sustained ground combat operations, they will require significant, dedicated corps transportation



b. Determining resources. Resources are determined by assessing transportation resources and con-sidering





What types of transportation units are available.



Characteristics and capabilities of each mode of transport.



Capabilities of available civilian transport based on a facility survey, equipment inspection, and agreements negotiated with civilian transportation operators.



Capabilities of HN transport, both civil and military, based on a facility survey, equipment inspection, and agreements negotiated with the host nation




c. Balancing requirements and resources. Balancing requirements and resources is a process that determines if the transportation capability is adequate to meet the requirements. It also establishes the work load for each segment of the transportation service. This is the most time-consuming portion of the planning process



Providing complete transportation support requires considering factors other than the necessary operating units. The planner provides for adequate C2 by organizing units according to their missions, proposed locations, and area of coverage. He coordinates with other service planners to make certain their plans include the necessary capability to support the transportation units. He makes recommendations on the location of S&S units according to their transportation requirements



A composite statement of total transportation requirements speeds up the planning process. Each planner selects the format he finds most usable. One may use a chart listing all requirements showing origin, destination, required delivery date, weight, quantity, and class of supply for each shipment



The process of establishing work loads for each transport mode varies according to the phase of the operation. Usually, the plan for the initial phase should provide sufficient motor transport for all cargo and personnel movements. Though some priority items will move by air, this quantity will normally be only a small percentage of the total supplies



Work loads are computed individually for each transport mode according to the characteristics and capabilities of the operating units of that mode. The final plan, however, must combine the units and operations of all modes into a single, integrated transportation system



During actual operation, the theater commander allocates a portion of the available airlift to TA for its requirements. For planning purposes, however, air movement capacity is an assumption based on coordination with Army aviation and Air Force planners. This assumed capacity seldom exceeds the requirement for moving priority cargo. If there is an excess, planners should use it for nonprogrammed priority movements. Army transport aircraft capacity seldom exceeds the amount required for DS of combat operations. Therefore, there should be no plans for routine air movements of other than priority cargo



Rarely will a transportation plan extensively use inland waterways. In only a few areas of the world are there extensive inland waterway systems compatible with transportation requirements. Inland waterway systems are relatively vulnerable to enemy action and sabotage and are difficult to restore to usefulness



The planner must be certain to include all types of work loads. They may include successive, direct, and retrograde shipments of some cargo; ********ation for rehandling; requirements for rewarehousing; augmentation of units' transportation; assistance to the medical evacuation plan; and requirements to support allied and civilian organizations



d. Determining critical points, shortfalls, and priorities. Determining critical points along the proposed transportation system is done early in the planning process to identify points such as supply facilities, aerial and water ports, terminal transfer locations, and other points that may create bottlenecks. Accompanying this critical point determination is analyzing which alternative plans would alleviate possible bottlenecks. This builds flexibility into the system. Determining capabilities results in an assessment of the number of transportation units and their equipment available to support common-user movement requirements. Included in this assessment is the total number of HN transportation assets allocated, the number of third-country and US-contracted assets and reception materials handling, and in-transit storage capabilities. Balancing known or projected requirements against this assessment requires movement planning according to command priorities and the transportation priority or the shipment when capabilities fall short of meeting requirements. The remaining shortfall will be adjusted, and these adjustments will be coordinated with the shipper, receiver, materiel manager, and logistic staffs.


e. Coordinating among planners. Complete coordination among all planners is mandatory to ensure integrated support. Original guidance is seldom valid throughout the planning period. Therefore, constant coordination with the other staff planners on changes to the mission, commander's concepts, assumptions, intelligence, policies, priorities, allocations, locations of facilities, and other elements necessary to keep planning current is an absolute necessity

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

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قديم 29-06-09, 08:37 PM

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DEFINITION OF TERMS



The following selected transportation terms are useful in understanding transportation operations in combat



a. Backhaul,shipping materiel to or through an area from which the materiel has previously been shipped



b. Consignee,the receiving agency, unit, depot, or person to whom the shipment unit is addressed or consigned



c. Consignor,the activity from which a shipment unit is made



d. Diversion,rerouting cargo or passengers to a new transshipment point or destination or on a different mode of transportation before arriving at the ultimate destination



e. Highway regulating point,point on the highway where the MRT records and reports arriving and departing highway movements and regulates those elements by issuing instructions for continuing the march, detours, diversions, schedules, etc



f. Highway regulation,planning, routing, scheduling, and directing actual highway use by vehicles; personnel afoot (including troops, refugees, and civilians); and animals using highway transportation facilities and equipment most effectively to meet operational requirements. This is a highway traffic division function



g. Highway traffic control,enforcing the rules of the road, traffic regulations, and road discipline, including spot direction. This is a provost marshal and MP function



h. Intertheater shipments,shipments moving into or out of the theater



i. Intratheater shipments,shipments originating and terminating within the theater



j. Line-haul,in highway transportation, a type of haul involving long trips over the road in which the portion of driving time is high in relation to the time consumed in loading and unloading. Line-hauls normally involve one trip or a portion of a trip per operating shift of 10 hours, or two trips per day



k. Local haul,in highway transportation, a type of haul characterized by short driving time in relation to the loading and unloading time. These hauls normally involve four or more trips per day


l. LOTS,loading and unloading ships without the benefit of fixed port facilities in friendly or unfriendly territory



m. Mode operations,a collective term used to indicate operations of one or more transport modes (highway, rail, water, and air)



n. Movement capability,the total capability of the shipping and receiving agencies and the transport services to effect transportation between two or more points or areas over a stated period of time



o. Movement control,planning, routing, scheduling, and controlling personnel and supply movements over LOCs; also an organization responsible for these functions



p. Movement control agency (MCA),a major functional TA control element that coordinates and administers transportation policy. This agency balances and coordinates the capabilities of shipping, transporting, and receiving activities theaterwide; maintains a close relationship with CONUS transportation activities; and technically supervises the CMCC



q. Movement control center (MCC),a functional control center at corps level (assigned to a COSCOM) that balances and coordinates the capabilities of shipping, transporting, and receiving activities to provide a responsive transportation system capable of satisfying the commander's movements requirements



r. Movements program,a command directive prepared by the transportation movement element and issued in the commander's name giving plans for future movements. It is based on the commander's overall plan and coordinated with all interested agencies. The movements program allocates the available transport mode capability to satisfy the movements requirements according to priorities the commander establishes. These priorities provide an orderly basis for resolving competition among the various users of the available transport. The movements program normally contains information on origins, destinations, weight and cube of cargo, type and number of personnel to be moved, the movement priority, and the transportation organization assigned the movement responsibility



s. Terminal,those military and commercial facilities used to load, unload, and transit handling cargo or personnel by various modes of transportation



t. Terminal operations,command and control of Army operations at water terminals (established ports, beaches, and inland waterways), air terminals (Air Force and Army), and in-transit areas



u. Throughput,shipping supplies or moving personnel from points of origin as far forward as possible, bypassing intermediate supply or personnel activities



v. MCT,coordinates all assigned movements and ensures that available resources are maximally effective and economically used. These MCTs are assigned to the corps and to EAC



w. Transshipment,transferring a load from one transport facility or vehicle to another using the same or different means of transport


x. Transportation component command (TCC),a generic phrase that describes the various transportation agencies within the US Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM),the Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC), Air Mobility Command, and Military Sealift Command,that move personnel and cargo during peace and war

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

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قديم 30-06-09, 11:33 AM

  رقم المشاركة : 16
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ARMING THE FORCE




INTRODUCTION
Much has been said and written about the increased lethality of today's battlefield, and an integral part of this lethality is a responsive and continuous supply of ammunition. Within the corps, ammunition operations' primary focus is to support the "big six" combat users,artillery, infantry, armor, air defense artillery, combat engineers, and combat aviation. The corps ammunition system is the maneuver-oriented ammunition distribution system,palletized loading system (MOADS/PLS).


When fighting as part of joint and combined forces, US Army ammunition units may also support other services and possibly coalition forces. In this era of force projection, ammunition planning must have the flexibility to support all types and combinations of forces.


This chapter focuses primarily on conventional ammunition support but also includes an overview of explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) operations within a corps and unexploded ordnance (UXO) threats and procedures. The information in this chapter is derived from FMs 9-6, 9-15, 9-38, 54-30, and 63-3. The pre-ponderance of the information in this chapter is based on the example of a heavy division. Since the primary focus of this chapter is corps and division ammunition operations, information about the TA and CONUS is minimal. If this chapter conflicts with doctrinal sources, the doctrinal sources will prevail. You will find there is a blend of doctrine and emerging doctrine. Emerging doctrine will be identified as such. Do not use this chapter as a crutch to avoid becoming familiar with the doctrinal manuals.


Paragraph 5-7 includes several examples of how to apply the lift capability of ammunition units. Remember these are examples that are intended only to illustrate how lift may be used. Do not take them as the only possible solutions.


AMMUNITION SUPPORT


a. General. Providing the required quantity and type of ammunition to the combat user at the time and place it is needed requires a responsive and flexible ammunition supply system. MOADS/PLS provides this capability. The objective of MOADS/PLS is to deliver 100 percent of the "big six" users' ammunition require-ments through supporting ATPs. In addition to these combat users, other units may receive ammunition support on an area basis from the ammunition supply activity [e.g., ATP, ammunition supply point (ASP), or corps storage area (CSA)] closest to the unit. Other units operating in the division rear area receive ammunition support on an area basis from either a DS ammunition company ATP or an ASP unless the division directs otherwise. The ASP can support units and make direct shipments of selected items to the ATPs. MOADS/PLS maximizes the use of combat-configured loads (CCLs). GS companies that operate CSAs in the corps rear provide GS ammunition support.


b. Ammunition basic loads (ABLs). ABLs originate with tactical forces' planned deployment. Ammunition is allocated to units in peacetime so that in the event of deployment, units will have an initial issue of ammunition that can sustain the unit until resupply can be accomplished.


The ABL is that quantity of conventional ammunition a unit is authorized and required to sustain itself until normal resupply can be effected. ABL must be carried in one lift in a combination of weapon systems, unit personnel, and organic equipment. The ABL's size and makeup are designed to meet a unit's anticipated initial combat needs. ABL is normally expressed in rounds per weapon, but it can be expressed in its number of required combat loads (battalion loads for artillery systems). The following factors influence the ABL's composi-tion:


Nature of the enemy threat.
Type of mission.
Intensity of engagement.
Availability of resupply transport.
Availability of ammunition.
Number and types of weapons in unit.


The criticality of high-lethality, special purpose, high-cost ammunition such as the Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) requires extraordinary asset management, dispersion, and distribution to ensure availability. Limited availability of these types of ammunition may preclude their inclusion in individual ABLs. Rather than being allocated per weapon, these types of ammunition may be held back to attack preselected, high-priority targets as they appear.


c. Combat load (CL). Another unit of measure that has emerged is the CL. A CL is the designated quantity of munitions each deployable weapon system will carry to initiate combat operations. It is a standard unit of measure used to describe munitions for planning and resource programming. For most weapon systems, the CL is limited to the amount the weapon system can carry; e.g., 40 rounds in an M1A2 tank. The CL for artillery [including the multiple-launch rocket system (MLRS)] is actually a battalion load that includes rounds carried in the howitzer, a dedicated ammunition support vehicle, a field artillery ammunition support vehicle (FAASV), and battalion HEMTTs. CLs for attack helicopter units include more munitions than can be carried in one lift and provide enough munitions to assemble any combination of missiles, rockets, and ammunition the commander desires for a specific mission.


In force-projection operations, the CL system will be used to manage ammunition operations. The intent is to match the required number of CLs to the particular mission, and the required quantity of CLs will flow into the theater.


d. Lift capability. Ammunition units' capabilities are measured in lift. A lift uses materials handling equipment (MHE) to pick up ammunition and put it down, with each pickup and put-down constituting one lift. Lift is usually measured in short tons (STON) (2,000 pounds). Lift capabilities are limited by availability of personnel and MHE. There are several categories of activities that constitute lift,receipts, issues, rewarehouse/ configure, and transload. At an ATP, the only lift required is transload. At all other ammunition storage areas, there will be a combination of all types of lift. The ammunition manager's goal is to effectively manage ammunition unit lift capabilities to adequately support ongoing operations.


CONTROL PROCEDURES


a. Ammunition supply rates. The procedures used to control ammunition consumption are the required supply rate (RSR) and the controlled supply rate (CSR). The Standard Army Ammunition System (SAAS) is the management information system used to support these control procedures.


TheRSR is the amount of ammunition a maneuver commander estimates will be needed to sustain tactical operations, without restrictions, over a specified time period or for a specific mission. The RSR is expressed as rounds per weapon per day or, for selected items, as a bulk allotment per day or per mission. As the threat or missions change, RSRs should change to reflect revised ammunition forecasts. Maneuver com-manders develop RSRs and submit them to the next higher HQ through operations channels. Each HQ reviews, adjusts, and consolidates RSRs and forwards them through operations channels. At the HQ that has ammunition management responsibilities, normally at TA level, the total ammunition requirements are compared against total ammunition assets expected for that period. If there is a restriction, a CSR will be established.


TheCSR is that amount of ammunition that can be allocated based on the availability of ammuni-tion types or quantities, class V storage facilities, and transportation assets over a specific time period. The CSR is expressed in the same terms as the RSR. Commanders should use CSRs to allocate or prioritize the flow of ammunition assets to units engaged in combat and to units held in reserve. They should also withhold some ammunition, especially high-lethality, low-density ammunition, to meet unforeseen requirements.


The commander with ammunition management responsibilities, normally the TA commander, will announce the CSR for each item of ammunition to the corps commanders through logistics channels. The rates may vary from corps to corps depending on priorities, the projected threat, and ammunition availability. Each maneuver commander announces a CSR to the next subordinate maneuver commander. Commanders making CSR allocations to subordinate units should not allocate 100 percent of the CSR received from the higher HQ. They should retain a portion to meet unforeseen contingencies.


The CSRs should be published in the OPORD, a fragmentary order (FRAGO), a service support annex, or a fire support annex. The CSR may change daily. If there are no restrictions, the statement, "The CSR is the RSR," is used. The next higher commander may give permission for a unit to exceed its CSR. The commander granting permission for a unit to exceed its CSR must release contingency stocks, withhold or reduce issues to other units, or request an increase in his own CSR from the next higher commander before permitting a unit to increase its CSR.


b. The division ammunition officer (DAO). DAOs are responsible for ammunition distribution in the division. They are located in the DMMC where they can oversee the division's class V assets. The DAO maintains constant communication with the users, the MSC staffs, the CMMC, and ATPs while coordinating ATP operations/resupply with corps and division units. This communications capability and knowledge of planned and current operations enables the DAO to anticipate the ammunition consumption of supported units, thereby ensuring ammunition is available to support user requirements.


The division commander determines the quantity of ammunition to supply each brigade based on planned operations, the current CSR, and subordinate commanders' ammunition requirements. The DAO then coordinates with the CMMC for the required or authorized ammunition to be shipped to the designated ATP for the using unit to pick up. The DAO notifies the ATP representative and MSC S4s of inbound ammunition shipments. The MSC S4s must notify subordinate units when and where to pick up ammunition. Based on the division commander's concept of the operation, the DAO specifies which units (division, corps, or other) each ATP supports. The DAO also recommends locations for the ATPs to the command organizations responsible for their positioning.


In some situations, the DAO may designate an ASP rather than an ATP to provide more responsive ammunition resupply to units operating in the division rear. Upon issuing, the users may reconfigure the ammunition into appropriate LOGPACs for movement forward and distribution. Munitions barrier material should be delivered directly to an engineer supply point (ESP) near the emplacement site.


c. The CMMC. The CMMC's missile and munitions division interfaces with the DAOs and MSC S4s. The CMMC performs the following ammunition support functions:


Approves stockage objectives for CSAs/ASPs.
Recommends CSRs to the corps staff.
Directs ammunition distribution in the corps.
Provides requirements for moving ammunition to the MCC.
Coordinates with the theater army MMC (TAMMC) and or national inventory control point (NICP) to fill ammunition requirements.
Operates the SAAS 1/3 to maintain visibility of ammunition assets on hand and in transit and determines authorized levels.

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

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قديم 30-06-09, 11:35 AM

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COMBAT-CONFIGURED LOADS



A CCL is a preplanned package of ammunition designed to support a specific weapon system or unit and is transported as a single unit. CCLs' primary purpose is to simplify planning and coordination for ammunition resupply. CCLs are a predetermined mix of ammunition designed to fit on a specific vehicle; i.e., a stake and platform (S&P) trailer or a PLS flatrack. CCL design should consider both US and HN transportation assets.


CCL planning is done in peacetime to enhance wartime resupply coordination between the ATP and DAO and from the DAO to the CMMC. MSC S4s should submit proposed CCL configurations to the DAO based on their type of unit, task force, or weapon system. The DAO reviews CCL submissions and submits a consolidated division CCL listing to the corps. The CMMC, in coordination with the corps staff, reviews all CCL requests and establishes a corps set of standard CCLs to support the corps maneuver units. Using CCLs does not preclude ordering single Department of Defense identification code (DODIC) loads.


Battalion-level CCLs are the general building block used for CCL design. However, within a brigade, use caution not to design CCLs for pure battalions. Plan CCLs based on typical task organization within the brigade.


AMMUNITION UNITS


a. Supply Company, FSB,operates an ATP in its respective BSA and provides ammunition support to its combat brigade and other units that may be operating in the brigade area.


b. Ordnance Company, Ammunition (DS) (MOADS/PLS),operates up to three geographically dispersed ASPs and one ATP in a division area. Basis of allocation is one company per division. It is normally attached to a forward CSB in a forward COSCOM CSG.


c. Ordnance Company, Ammunition (MOADS/PLS)(CSA),operates CSAs in support of corps operations. The basis of allocation for these companies is one per 3,500 STON of ammunition expenditure. It is normally attached to either the rear CSG's ammunition battalion, the S&S battalion, or to a CSB. In contingency opera-tions or to shorten the distance between the CSAs and ASPs and ATPs, this company may be attached to a forward CSG's CSB to operate a CSA behind each division.


d. Ordnance Battalion, Conventional Ammunition,is attached to the rear CSG to establish and operate ammunition supply facilities. Only one ammunition battalion is required to support a fully deployed corps. This battalion provides corpswide GS ammunition support to divisions, separate brigades, and ACRs. This battalion is one of the few functional battalions remaining in the COSCOM.


AMMUNITION FLOW


Ammunition support in a theater of operations is based on a continuous refill system distribution to the ATPs and ASPs in the division areas. The general flow of ammunition under MOADS/PLS is depicted in figure 5-1. Ammunition is received from CONUS or other supply sources by containership or breakbulk transport. Selected items may be shipped by air. Once ammunition clears the port area, it is shipped to the theater storage areas (TSAs) or CSAs. Air transport may be employed to move critical items to forward areas.


The CSAs ship ammunition to the ASPs. At the ASPs, the ammunition is either issued to units located within the ASP's AO or shipped forward to the ATPs. ATPs provide supply point distribution to all customer units. All ammunition shipments from TA will flow through CSAs. MOADS/PLS is designed to provide up to 3,500 STON of ammunition to a heavy division per day. All unit capabilities are built to meet this projected worst-case scenario.

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

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قديم 30-06-09, 11:37 AM

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AMMUNITION SUPPLY SUPPORT ACTIVITIES



a. ATPs. In support of a typical division, three ATPs will normally provide the majority of the ammunition to the combat units. These ATPs are assigned to the FSB supply companies. The ATPs move (less ammunition stocks) whenever the brigade or division moves using organic transportation assets. The ATP's terrain layout will be designed to meet the mission of the ATP and the supported brigade. The divisional ATPs will not normally cover more than 1 square kilometer. The DAO provides mission guidance to these ATPs through a representative assigned to each of the ATPs. These ATPs may provide ammunition as coordinated with the DAO to corps units operating in the brigade area. Each ATP can provide 550 STON of ammunition per day. For light forces, this amount is lessened to 350 STON of ammunition per ATP.


An Ordnance Company, Ammunition (DS) (MOADS/PLS) is able to deploy an ATP in the division rear area. While this corps ATP is manned by personnel from the DS company, the DAO provides mission guidance. This ATP can provide up to 970 STON of ammunition per day. This will normally be provided to corps artillery, aviation units, and other nondivisional units operating in the division sector. The ATP can be used to augment the divisional ATPs and provide high-tonnage artillery ammunition such as the MLRS. When corps artillery and engineer units move from one division to another division in the same corps, they will normally receive ammunition support from the ATPs in the new division areas. ATPs receive ammunition loaded on corps transportation assets.


Under MOADS/PLS the CCLs will arrive in the ATP secured to PLS flatracks also called sideless containers (SCs). These flatracks will be offloaded from the corps transportation assets and set on the ground where they will remain until the PLS-equipped user arrives with his vehicle that is designed to pick up the PLS flatrack and transport it to the user area. Under the initial concept, the only users who will receive PLS will be field artillery units. All other units must still transload ammunition from flatracks to their particular type of ammunition vehicles. This transload is accomplished using the users' resupply vehicles with onboard MHE, such as the HEMTT, or using the ATP's organic MHE. The ATPs will have a limited number of PLS trucks that can move some of the PLS flatracks around as needed within the ATP area. If the ATP must be relocated and has ammunition stocks on hand, transportation assets will have to be requested to make the move.


Under the MOADS/PLS distribution system, the ATPs receive 75 percent of their ammunition in CCLs from the CSA. The remaining 25 percent comes from the ASPs. When an ATP issues ammunition loaded on PLS flatracks to a using unit, the using unit exchanges empty PLS flatracks for loaded PLS flatracks. After an ATP issues CCL ammunition to using units, the combat users reconfigure the load into appropriate LOGPACs.


b. ASPs. An Ordnance Company, Ammunition (DS) (MOADS/PLS) establishes three geographically dispersed ASPs as well as the ATP discussed in paragraph 5-7a. Normally one company will provide ammunition support per division. Each ASP will normally maintain 1 to 3 days of supply (DOS) of ammunition to meet surge and emergency requirements for divisional and nondivisional units. This could be as much as 10,500 STON depending on the situation. The CMMC provides the mission directives and priorities of issues to the ASPs.


Under MOADS/PLS, the ASPs will receive 100 percent of their ammunition stock from the CSAs using corps transportation assets. The ASPs will provide 25 percent of the ammunition going to ATPs. The ASPs must also provide emergency ammunition supply backup in the event the CSA to ATP LOC is interrupted.


The ASPs will be positioned to provide maximum support for the tactical mission. The ASP layout will be designed to accommodate the mission and terrain assigned. It will cover approximately 5 to 6 square kilometers. The distance between the CSA and the ASP will not normally exceed line-haul transportation distance.


Each MOADS/PLS ASP can normally lift 844 STON. Company totals are 2,530 STON (3 x 844) at the ASPs and 970 STON at the ATP. This total lift capability must be applied to ammunition receipts, configuring CCLs, rewarehousing, and issues.


FM 9-6 does not yet address the lift capability of MOADS/PLS units; therefore, the following example will illustrate how the lift capability can be used. If a MOADS/PLS ASP received 281 STON of ammunition that is not configured in CCLs and the ASP was preconfiguring another 281 STON of ammunition, the ASP would be limited to being able to issue only 282 STON of ammunition (281 + 281 + 282 = 844 STON). In an ASP, rather than having an even flow of ammunition with equal amounts of lift required for receipts, configuring, and issues, it will be more realistic for the ASP in MOADS/PLS operations to receive a large portion of the ammunition preconfigured. Ammunition that has been preconfigured in CCLs on PLS flatracks is ready for issue and will require little manpower from the ASP personnel to complete the issue.


If the ASPs had to temporarily perform a CSA's mission (assuming sufficient stocks were on hand), two of the ASPs could surge operations and each issue approximately 1,167 STON of ammunition, and the third ASP could issue 1,166 STON of ammunition (1,167 STON + 1,167 STON + 1,166 STON = 3,500 STON). The 1,167 or 1,166 STON exceeds an ASP's normal lift capability of 843. This can be done for short periods in a surge mode provided most of the onhand stocks have been preconfigured and will require minimal lifting and handling. Also, with the CSA destroyed or cut off, the ASPs will not be conducting receipt operations from the CSA, thus providing more available lift. But at some point the ASPs may be required to receive ammunition shipments from TA.


The ASPs have limited assets for preconfiguring loads and building CCLs. During periods when an ASP is not using its full resources for receiving and issuing ammunition, it can be building its onhand stocks into ready-for-issue CCLs. If a corps plans for its ASPs to provide any large percentage of its ammunition stocks as CCLs continually, these CCLs should be built at the CSAs and delivered to the ASPs ready for issue. Otherwise, the ASP will receive most of its ammunition as breakbulk, single DODIC ammunition. When additional ammunition is required, which was not included in the CCLs received from the CSA, customers will receive it directly from the ASP or through their respective ATP as directed.


c. CSA. One or more Ordnance Company, Ammunition (MOADS/PLS)(CSA) will operate a CSA in the corps rear area. Normally one CSA will provide ammunition support per division. A MOADS/PLS CSA company can normally provide 7,000 STON of lift per day. The basis of allocation for the GS company is one per 3,500 STON of ammunition required per day. When additional ammunition tonnage is needed to support nondivisional, separate brigades or special units, either an additional company needs to be assigned to the CSA or another CSA must be established.


Normally, the CSA will cover an area of about 40 square kilometers. A CSA should be established in a semifixed or field location, and when practical, it should be located near railheads and MSRs. When possible, choose an area with a good road network capable of supporting at least 250 trailer loads of ammunition per day. The CSA should be located within line-haul transportation range of the ASPs and ATPs it will support.


The CSA stockage objective will normally be 7 to 10 DOS of ammunition and will not exceed 25,000 STON. The CMMC will give mission directives, stockage objectives, and priorities of issue. Under MOADS/PLS, the CSA will normally receive 50 percent of its ammunition from the POD and the other 50 percent from a TSA.


Also under MOADS/PLS, a CSA can normally provide a total ammunition lift capability of 7,000 STON per day. Ideally, the CSA should be able to receive 3,500 STON of ammunition, and preconfigure and issue another 3,500 STON of ammunition per day. This is the intent by doctrine, but these numbers are situationally dependent and could be adjusted to fit a specific scenario. Because the CSA's normal lift capability is a total of 7,000 STON, if the CSA is receiving, preconfiguring, and issuing an even flow, a possible breakdown might be receipts of 2,333 STON, reconfiguring 2,333 STON, and issuing 2,334 STON of ammunition (2,333 + 2,333 + 2,334 = 7,000 STON). This type of even flow is not likely. A large percentage of the ammunition the CSA will handle will require little handling with minimal to no preconfiguring; e.g., MLRS ammunition.


The actual tonnage capabilities for the CSA, as well as other supply points, may vary considerably based on the types and configurations of ammunition being received and issued. The tonnage capabilities may surge above the planned peak load or fall well below the planned, normal capabilities due to changes in types and config-urations of ammunition being received and issued and the efficiency with which it is handled.

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

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قديم 30-06-09, 11:39 AM

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TRANSPORTATION



Corps-level ammunition units must rely on corps-level transportation units to distribute ammunition stocks. As a general rule, once ammunition has been delivered to a CSA, corps transportation units move all ammunition within the corps.


Truck companies from the rear CSG's transportation battalion normally support CSAs. They move ammunition from the CSA to the ASPs and ATPs. These truck companies provide support on an area support basis. Their areas are adjusted based on the intensity of combat and density of maneuver forces.


A truck company from the CSB will normally support the Ordnance Company, Ammunition (DS) (MOADS/PLS). The CSG may allocate additional transportation assets to support the ammunition company in the division sector based on movement priorities, anticipated ammunition consumption, ammunition availability, and other such factors.


HOST NATION SUPPORT


Support agreements identify dedicated sources of host nation support (HNS). During combined operations, an HNS organization can augment the corps' conventional ammunition support organization. National agreements define the interaction between HNS and US units. Depending on the support agreements for the theater of operations, the host nation could provide ammunition supply units and battalions to augment conventional GS ammunition operations.


In more mature theaters, the host nation may provide ammunition units under the WHNS system. This system includes ammunition units manned in peacetime by local nationals who are also members of the HN military reserves. Upon mobilization of the HN reserves, the local nationals would stay in place and operate under the C2 of a US CLT.


The CLTs are assigned to the COSCOM and attached to a CSG. The CLTs control US ammunition in WHNS ammunition supply units' custody. They provide ammunition accountability interface among the CMMC, US ammunition supply system, and WHNS ammunition companies.

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

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قديم 30-06-09, 11:41 AM

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EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL OVERVIEW



The continuing development and availability of foreign and US high-technology munitions that disperse numerous submunitions and area-denial ordnance have led to the proliferation of UXO on the battlefield. Battlefields will be littered with UXO from two sources: ordnance that has failed to function as designed or area-denial ordnance. UXO limits battlefield mobility, denies the use of critical assets, and threatens to injure or kill soldiers at levels unprecedented in past conflicts. Because of this threat, commanders at all levels must incorpo-rate EOD support into the planning process. Graphic Training Aid (GTA) 9-12-1 provides more details on UXO hazards.


EOD's function is to protect the commander's combat power. Its mission is to eliminate or reduce the hazards of domestic or foreign conventional, nuclear, chemical, and biological munitions and improvised explosive devices that threaten personnel, military operations, facilities, and materiel. In a theater of operations, the TA is allocated one ordnance group (EOD) whenever two or more EOD control teams (EODCTs) are deployed. This group provides C2 for all US Army EOD units in theater.


At the corps level, EOD support is provided by an EODCT with up to 10 subordinate EOD detachments allocated from the ordnance group (EOD). This EODCT operates out of the COSCOM and provides a coordina-tion team to the corps rear CP while providing C2 for all EOD detachments operating in the corps area. Each rear area operations center (RAOC) in the corps rear, up to four, will have an EOD detachment in DS. Each division in the corps, up to five, will have an EOD detachment in DS. These detachments, each with their five EOD response teams, operate out of the division rear CP with DISCOM support. The five response teams provide EOD support down to the brigade level within the division. Remaining EOD detachments provide GS to the corps.


EMERGING DOCTRINE,AMMUNITION XXI LOGISTICS


Due to recent changes and the realities of the future battlefield, arming the CONUS-based force-projection Army requires a new cultural thought process in logistics operations. The focus will remain on support to the combat soldier, however, the conditions under which the future force will operate demand that the ammunition logistics system undergo significant changes. There are more than 20 Ammunition XXI initiatives being studied. In keeping with the scope of this student **** (ST), a few merit mention in this chapter.


a. Modular ammunition units. These ammunition units are capable of providing support elements that are interchangeable, expandable, and tailorable to meet the Army's changing needs. Essentially, the modular ammunition company consists of an HQ platoon, heavy-lift platoon(s) (HLP), and medium-lift platoon(s) (MLP). The number of MLPs and HLPs can be increased or decreased based on mission requirements and will be deployed in the required numbers to functional locations as required to provide the quantity of ammunition required.


b. Strategic-configured loads (SCLs). An SCL consists of ammunition that is configured at a CONUS depot or facility in a complete round mix for artillery and in a weapon system mix for other systems (e.g., tanks, attack helicopters, etc.). It is loaded into an ISO container/ISO-compatible flatrack for shipment to the theater. This would significantly reduce the lift requirements within the theater of operations.


c. Mission-configured loads (MCLs). An MCL is ammunition that is configured/reconfigured from SCLs and breakbulk munitions into complete round mixes/weapon system mixes to meet a specific theater of operation requirement. Building MCLs is essentially "fine-tuning" SCLs.

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

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قديم 30-06-09, 11:44 AM

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FUELING THE FORCE


INTRODUCTION
The modern US Army corps uses as much fuel per day as General George S. Patton's entire Third Army used in its race across France. More recently, during the ground offensive in Desert Storm, the VII Corps required 2.4 million gallons daily, and the XVIII Airborne Corps needed 2.1 million gallons of fuel. This equates to 900 tanker loads a day. These quantities of fuel presented a monumental task for the fuel haulers that was only compounded by the extended LOC. Obvisously, fuel consumption in the modern Army is tremendous, whether we are operating in a desert or jungle environment. Getting the right amount to the right place at the right time is a major sustainment challenge.


FUELING THE CORPS FORCE


The corps force can move and support the attack only as long as vehicles and aircraft have fuel. The COSCOM may need to supply more than 500,000 gallons of fuel per day to support a heavy division sector. Nondivision elements may require an additional 80,000 gallons each day. To support a corps' total requirement, its COSCOM petroleum supply units and DS supply units must stock sufficient quantities in dispersed class III points.


So that fuel does not become a logistics constraint, the supporting transportation distribution system will need to provide rapid fuel resupply distribution ranging in quantities from 1,500,000 to 1,800,000 gallons per day for committed forces. For surge operations, this requirement could increase to as much as 2,300,000 gallons per day.


DIVISION BULK FUEL DISTRIBUTION


Figure 6-1 depicts the bulk fuel distribution system. Requirements will flow from DMMCs, separate brigades, ACRs, and class III supply points. S4s will forecast requirements for the next 72 hours based on projected consumption data for the probable level of activity.


The DMMC class III and water supply branch centrally controls and manages the bulk fuel supply to division elements. It consolidates a 3-day fuel forecast from brigade and separate battalion S4s. Forecast frequency may vary depending on the intensity of operations. Priorities, allocations, and other controls for bulk fuels may be recommended to the division commander for approval through the G4. The DMMC will then provide fuel allocation guidance to the MSB.


The MSB S&S company receives, stores, and issues bulk class III. The MSB stores class III(b) in collapsible storage tanks or fuel bags. Storage capability is greater at the MSB than at the FSB; however, mobility is reduced. Site preparation is necessary to ensure the collapsible storage tanks are properly placed. The MSB provides either DS or reinforcing DS to all divisional units in the division rear and to the FSB supply companies.


The FSB supply company handles bulk fuel in DS of the manuever brigade and its slice elements. It submits daily status on quantities received, issued, and on hand to the DMMC. Medium trucks (petroleum) from the MSB S&S company deliver bulk fuel to FSB medium trucks (petroleum). [Note: Medium truck (petroleum) refers to POL tankers or trailers.] Deliveries are coordinated with the supply company commander through the FSB support operations officer. Fuel is transferred from one tanker to another or a trailer transfer operation will take place. If trailer transfer point operations take place, procedures are established in the division's SOP and routinely practiced within the division.


The division ASB supports the aviation brigade. If the division cavalry squadron is positioned at a distance from the aviation brigade, the division ASB may have to coordinate to provide more effective support. The FSB and the division ASB use supply point distribution to support their customers. Tactical units pick up fuel in a BSA with organic refueling vehicles and deliver it by tailgate or service-station LOGPAC method.


ECHELON ABOVE DIVISION BULK FUEL DISTRIBUTION


DMMCs, separate brigades, and ACRs will forecast their requirements to the CMMC. The CMMC petroleum/water division will compare bulk requirements against quantities available for issue. The COSCOM support operations may direct that the CMMC adjust forecasted deliveries based on corps-issued priorities and tactical support requirements. It is in this manner that class III(b) is a scheduled supply for which we can "push" forward. As appropriate, the MMC submits consolidated requirements to the TAMMC or Joint Petroleum Office.


The TA petroleum group distributes bulk fuel either by pipeline, barge, railcar, truck, or a combination of transportation modes to the farthest points practicable in the corps. Transportation medium truck companies (petroleum) transport fuel from the corps area to class III supply points operated by petroleum supply companies and nondivision DS supply companies. A medium petroluem truck company then pushes the fuel from the petroleum supply company to the MSB in the DSA, division ASB, separate brigade support battalion, and ACR support squadron. To meet unexpected requirements, the COSCOM MMC may divert or reroute fuel being transported from COMMZ stocks to appropriate forward-located class III supply points. Throughput is not preferred for distributing bulk POL; however, the situation may dictate that coordination take place to meet tactical requirements.


A quartermaster (QM) DS supply company provides fuel by supply point distribution for nondivisional units. This means supported units drive organic POL tank vehicles to their supporting DS-level class III supply point. However, if the customer or using unit operates closer to a GS petroleum supply company, the administrative/ logistics plan may direct the unit to obtain fuel from the GS-level source. The effort should be to support customers within the unit's capability and to provide that support sensibly and however it best supports the tactical situation.


Aerial resupply using 500-gallon drums provides emergency resupply when ground LOCs are not secure or available, or when the enemy or tactical situation cuts the unit off from normal resupply. Aerial resupply may be the only way to sustain light forces or small-scale operations beyond the FLOT. An airdrop supply company will prepare loads for delivery by fixed-wing aircraft. As required, DS supply company personnel will sling load 500-gallon drums for helicopter external sling load. The receiving unit must be able to dispense from the drums, or essential components of the forward area refueling equipment (FARE) system must accompany the fuel delivery.


CONTROL PROCEDURES/MATERIEL MANAGEMENT


The CMMC centralizes inventory control. It receives requirements (forecasts) from the corps' subordinate units and usage reports from petroleum suppliers. The system supplies bulk petroleum by immediately replacing the quantities issued. The COSCOM commander must provide necessary information to the corps commander for decisions affecting current and future operations. Control measures such as fuel allocation, restricted fuel consumption, or prioritizing fuel distribution may be imposed to ensure tactical support requirements are met. The corps G4 in coordination with the COSCOM commander will recommend contol measures to the corps commander based on input from the G3 on the tactical operation.


The CMMC centrally manages bulk petroleum for the corps. Unlike any other supply commodity, the CMMC also centrally controls nondivisional bulk petroleum transportation assets within the corps. It receives and coordinates forecasted requirements and directs bulk petroleum distribution. It reports distribution problems that deviate from the routine to the COSCOM support operations that develop a solution and direct appropriate action.


HABITUAL SUPPORT REQUIREMENT


Bulk fuel distribution relies on the habitual support relationship between GS petroleum supply companies and transportation medium truck companies (petroleum). Assigning a petroleum supply company and a habitually supporting truck company to each forward CSG enables the CSG to control the fuel distribution system in support of daily operational requirements for bulk fuel in its AOR.

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

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قديم 30-06-09, 11:47 AM

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PLANNING FUEL SUSTAINMENT SUPPORT



To support the movement and momentum of initial clashes, the COSCOM must push fuel forward and deep from the very outset of the battle. Petroleum officers will preplan bulk fuel resupply. Plans will need to include uninterruptedthest points practicable in the corps. Transportation medium truck companies (petroleum) transport fuel from the corps area to class III supply points operated by petroleum supply companies and nondivision DS supply companies. A medium petroluem truck company then pushes the fuel from the petroleum supply company to the MSB in the DSA, division ASB, separate brigade support battalion, and ACR support squadron. To meet unexpected requirements, the COSCOM MMC may divert or reroute fuel being transported from COMMZ stocks to appropriate forward-located class III supply points. Throughput is not preferred for distributing bulk POL; however, the situation may dictate that coordination take place to meet tactical requirements.


A quartermaster (QM) DS supply company provides fuel by supply point distribution for nondivisional units. This means supported units drive organic POL tank vehicles to their supporting DS-level class III supply point. However, if the customer or using unit operates closer to a GS petroleum supply company, the administrative/ logistics plan may direct the unit to obtain fuel from the GS-level source. The effort should be to support customers within tSTIFY. FUEL ORGANIZATIONS


a. Supply Company. Assigned to each FSB to provide DS to a maneuver brigade and its associated slice elements. Its fuel capability consists of 10 5,000-gallon tankers.


b. S&S Company. Assigned to a MSB to provide DS or reinforcing DS to divisional units in the division rear and FSB supply companies. Two fuel system supply points (FSSPs) are available for storage and 34 tankers for distribution.


c. Headquarters and Supply Company. Assigned to a division ASB to provide DS to the avaition brigade and its associated slice elements. One FSSP, 15 HEMTTs, 3 tankers, and 8 FAREs are used for fuel support.


d. QM Supply Company (DS). Assigned to rear or forward CSGs with the basis of allocation to support 18,500 soldiers. Provides DS-level bulk fuel to nondivision units. Forward CSGs normally employ a DS supply company in the division area to provide support to nondivision units operating in the division sector. Also provides reinforcing support to FSBs and MSBs to enable them to support corps forces employing in the brigade or division area. Two FSSPs,120,000 gallons of bulk fuel storage,provide supply point distribution.


e. Petroleum Supply Company (GS). Assigned to a forward or rear CSG to provide corpswide GS-level bulk fuel support to nondivision DS supply companies, DISCOM MSBs, separate brigade support battalions, and ACR support squadrons. These companies also maintain a prescribed portion of the corps' petroleum reserve. Normally, a petroleum supply company cannot support more than one corps division slice. A total of 1,244,558 gallons of bulk fuel can be received or issued, and 2,520,000 gallons can be stored.


f. Medium Truck Company (Petroleum). Assigned to the forward and rear CSGs with a habitual relationship with the petroleum supply company. It transports bulk fuel from GS petroleum supply companies to DS supply companies and to divisions. Each company has 60 5,000-gallon tankers providing 900,000 gallons of local haul (4 round-trips per day) and 450,000 gallons of line-haul distribution (2 round-trips per day). (Note: The 7,500-gallon tankers are allocated at EAC only.)


g. Petroleum Product Laboratory (Mobile) Team. Normally attached to the petroleum supply battalion in the rear CSG to test fuel and provide technical assistance.


h. Petroleum Pipeline and Terminal Operating Company. Normally assigned to EAC but could be assigned in a COSCOM for independent corps operations. It operates a tactical petroleum terminal or existing fixed facilities and loading facilities, and can operate petroleum pipelines. Current doctrine requires a pipeline construction engineer company to initially lay the pipeline and establish the pump stations for turnover to the QM petroleum pipeline and terminal operating company for its operation. Pipeline equipment is not TOE, but it is included in operational project stocks Department of the Army (DA) controls.


i. HQ, Petroleum Supply Battalion. May be required for C2 if three or more petroleum supply companies are assigned to the corps.


j. HQ, Petroleum Pipeline and Terminal Operation Battalion. May be required for C2 if three or more petroleum pipeline and terminal operating companies are assigned to the independent/contingency corps.


k. Petroleum Supply CLT. Normally assigned to a CSG to provide liaison with and interface between an HNS petroleum supply battalion and the US petroleum distribution system.


A REFUELING TECHNIQUE


ROM for ground vehicles is a technique of resupply that is synonymous with rapid or hot refueling for aircraft). When vehicles enter a ROM site for refueling, they receive a short burst of fuel (usually timed for 1 to 2 minutes) and move out to return to their convoy or formation. It is normally accomplished far forward on the battlefield before reaching the tactical assembly area. This differs from normal resupply that will "top off" the receiving vehicle.



METT-T must be considered when planning for a ROM. The S3, S4, and support operations officer must identify, plan, and conduct the type of ROM operation that best supports the commander's scheme of maneuver. Consideration must be given to the risk for scarce petroleum resources to enemy interdiction, the availability of sufficient space to establish ROM operations, and masking friendly actions so as not to reveal our intent to the enemy. ROM operations are equipment-intensive, high-risk, and may require support from higher organizations.


ROM is equipment-independent. As long as the concept is followed, we can use any number of current equipment configurations to accomplish a ROM operation. Any unit can employ a ROM operation anywhere on the battlefield where there is a need to rapidly refuel combat vehicles. A number of equipment configurations can be employed:


a. ROM kit,consists of enough hoses, valves, and fittings to refuel up to eight combat vehicles simulta-neously. In addition, a fuel source [one or more 5,000-gallon semitrailers, HEMTTs, tank and pump units (TPUs), or collapsible fuel bags] must be added to the configuration. If JP-4/JP-8 or MOGAS is issued, a filter separator is also required. A 350-gallon per minute (GPM) pump can be added to provide a greater flow rate than the organic pump on the fuel carrier. The common table of allowances (CTA) authorizes ROM kits. (Note: Divisions received free issue of two ROM kits during Desert Shield/Desert Storm.)


b. Bulk fuel carriers,one or more 5,000-gallon semitrailers, HEMTTs, or TPUs can be emplaced to ROM combat vehicles. Equipment and their flow rates follow:


HEMTT,50 GPM from two organic nozzles (2,500-gallon capacity, cross-country capability, organic to maneuver battalions).


TPU,20 GPM from two organic nozzles (1,200-gallon capacity with two 600-gallon pods mounted on a 5-ton truck with a pump can pull an additional 600-gallon pod mounted on a 5-ton trailer). TPUs are replaced by HEMTTs. Very few are in the field now.

5,000-gallon tanker and ROM kit,35 PGM from each of eight nozzles.

5,000-gallon tanker,50 GPM from two organic nozzles.


Organic pumps on fuel carriers are actually greater than these figures; i.e., the 5,000-gallon tanker model M969 has a 600-GPM pump. The limiting factor here is based on the receiving vehicle's acceptance rate, thenumber, and the size of the nozzles. A ROM kit has eight 1½-inch nozzles. Most vehicles' acceptance rate is 50 GPM or less. For example, you can plan for an M1 tank receiving approximately 100 gallons in a 2-minute ROM.


SINGLE FUEL ON THE BATTLEFIELD


All US military services are converting to JP-8, the single fuel on the battlefield. A single fuel on the battlefield greatly facilitates managing and distributing fuel on the battlefield. JP-8 has a higher flash point than JP-4, a petroleum characteristic that provides greater safety. It is a suitable substitute for JP-4, diesel fuel, and MOGAS. Total conversion for the US Army is scheduled this year. The US Navy continues to use JP-5 when refueling aircraft at sea. The goal is for JP-8 to be issued to all US military organizations around the world.


Army MOGAS-burning equipment; i.e., M-2 burners, generators, etc., must be replaced with a multifuel burning piece of equipment. The projected date for replaceing all MOGAS-burning equipment is 2005. Obviously, this depends heavily on budget constraints. MOGAS is available as a packaged product.

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

رد مع اقتباس

قديم 30-06-09, 11:49 AM

  رقم المشاركة : 23
معلومات العضو
المنتصر
مشرف عام

الصورة الرمزية المنتصر

إحصائية العضو





المنتصر غير متواجد حالياً

رسالتي للجميع

افتراضي



 

FIXING THE FORCE




INTRODUCTION
Maintenance is the logistics function that keeps materiel operational, restores it to an operational condition, and upgrades its usefulness through design modification. Maintenance management has assumed greater importance due to its critical role in sustaining and increasing combat power. The primary focus of maintenance resources in the combat zone (CZ) is directed toward weapon systems. Maintenance work is performed as far forward as practical within the limitations of the commander's priorities, resources and time available, the tactical situation, and other factors. To maintain weapon systems forward in the battle area, a variety of events must be preplanned and vigorously executed. This is accomplished by trained mechanics who are skilled in proper diagnostic techniques, equipped with the appropriate tools, and have the proper repair parts on hand. If any of these conditions are missing, the weapon systems will not become operational, thereby reducing the unit's combat power. When does the Army maintain?


When a certain time elapses.
When a failure occurs.
When it sustains combat damage.


ARMY MAINTENANCE SYSTEM


The levels of maintenance (less aircraft) are unit maintenance, DSM, GSM, and depot maintenance (see table 7-1). These levels, together with innovations focusing on equipment design, represent an effort to reduce personnel requirements and simplify the maintenance effort. These efforts will provide responsive maintenance; improve operational mobility, flexibility, and readiness; and thereby increase battlefield efficiency.


a. A crew, the equipment operator, or unit maintenance personnel perform unit maintenance. Unit maintenance is characterized by quick turnaround based on service and replacement. Maintenance operations normally assigned to the unit level include lubrication, diagnosis, replacing easily accessible unserviceable parts, and recovering equipment to and from a supporting maintenance activity. Unit personnel also recover unserviceable but repairable equipment that is beyond their capability to repair at DS level.


The BMO controls the maintenance within the battalion. As the battalion is task organized, the BMO releases maintenance assets for those companies that are detached and accepts maintenance assets from attached companies. It is imperative that he ensures that adequate personnel, tools, maintenance and recovery vehicles, test equipment, and manuals are on hand so he can task organize the maintenance platoon to support the task force combat requirements.


b. DSM is characterized by highly mobile, forward-oriented repair. Equipment is usually repaired by replacing unserviceable modules and returning it to the user. Divisional DSM units will support division maneuver elements. Nondivisional DSM units will provide dedicated DSM to nondivisional units on an area support basis within the corps rear area or the division area. Nondivisional maintenance also provides reinforcing/backup DSM to the division.


Other operations normally assigned to the DSM level include diagnosing and repairing unserviceable materiel and returning it to the user. DSM units also provide ASL repair parts, perform light body repairs, provide technical assistance, and stock and issue authorized ORF equipment.


c. GSM includes those maintenance actions selected maintenance activities authorize and perform to support a major Army command (MACOM) or other force as a whole rather than supporting specific users. Materiel managers at EAC schedule GSM programs (such as repair, modification, or upgrade) to respond to the theater supply system's needs. Scheduling is accomplished according to the availability of repair parts and other maintenance resources. GSM of the theater supply system generally will be performed outside a deployed corps. Operations normally assigned to the GSM level include supporting the lower maintenance levels; performing heavy body, hull, turret, and frame repair; performing area maintenance support, including technical assistance, onsite maintenance, and MSTs as required or requested; and collecting and classifying unserviceable or abandoned class VII materiel. Equipment is repaired and returned to the supply system. GSM companies are authorized at EAC (theater) and are assigned to an area support group maintenance battalion.


d. Depot maintenance supports both the combat forces and the overall DA Inventory Management Program. In support of the combat forces, depot maintenance operations can back up DSM and GSM units and provide assistance in technical training to the forces during mobilization and peacetime. In support of the overall DA Inventory Management Program, depot maintenance operations serve as a source of combat-ready materiel.


AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE


The organization for Army aircraft maintenance consists of three levels of maintenance:


a. Aviation unit maintenance (AVUM). Units perform AVUM on their assigned aircraft. Company-sized aviation units perform primarily preventive maintenance tasks and maintenance repair and replacement functions associated with sustaining a high level of aircraft operational readiness.


b. AVIM. AVIM units support AVUM units. This support includes all maintenance functions authorized at the AVUM level plus repairing selected items that cannot be accomplished at the AVUM level.


c. Depot. Depot-level maintenance for aircraft is not designed for field applications. It supports the "repair and return to the supply system" concept and includes maintenance that is above the AVIM level. Most depot-level aviation maintenance is performed in CONUS.


Doctrinal passback maintenance is the percent of the divisional AVIM work load that is "passed back" to the supporting corps AVIM battalion. All divisional TOEs are decremented to compensate for doctrinal maintenance passback, and the corps AVIM battalions are designed to accommodate it.


FORWARD SUPPORT MAINTENANCE


Forward support maintenance is designed to support combat units' weapon systems as far forward as possible. When division equipment requires repair, maintenance personnel organic to the unit (unit level) or the forward battalion's MSTs (DSM level) conduct repair at the UMCP or the breakdown site. Corps (COSCOM) maintenance companies, as required, provide MSTs to work with the FSB (DSM reinforcing). These COSCOM MSTs are tailored from the mobile maintenance team and normally from DSM units with a backup/reinforcing maintenance mission, but they may be from any DSM unit with available support capacity. MSTs provide technical assistance, higher-level maintenance support, and special tools far forward on the battlefield, usually at a UMCP. Corps (COSCOM) MSTs return to their organic HQ when no longer needed in the forward location. The FSB MST remains at the unit level (combat trains) to provide continuous support forward.


The MMC centrally manages maintenance within the division or corps. The MMC determines what, where, when, how, and by whom equipment will be repaired. The DSM units evacuate equipment to the DSM backup units or they can request assistance from reinforcing MSTs. This support is based on preplanned directives the MMC issues (automatic evacuation instructions) or by direct communications with the MMC. The MMC shifts repair priority within the division or corps to various units and/or weapon systems to ensure maximum combat power.


Another important aspect of forward support maintenance is battlefield damage assessment and repair (BDAR). Operator, crew, and unit maintenance teams may perform BDAR on disabled equipment. This repair could significantly impact the outcome of a specific combat mission. The objective is to rapidly return the item to combat. However, personnel will only perform BDAR when standard maintenance procedures are impractical.


The "reinforcing" maintenance intent is to support the repair and return to the user as rapidly and as far forward as possible. It involves DSM units providing maintenance support to other DSM units. This concept ensures that maintenance assets are fully committed based on requirements. The reinforcing DSM unit will send MSTs forward to repair equipment onsite or in forward maintenance collection points (MCPs). The reinforcing unit may supply the repair parts required to repair equipment DSM units evacuate. Automatic evacuation instructions and repair-time limitations are fundamental components of the maintenance reinforcing concept.

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

رد مع اقتباس

قديم 30-06-09, 11:51 AM

  رقم المشاركة : 24
معلومات العضو
المنتصر
مشرف عام

الصورة الرمزية المنتصر

إحصائية العضو





المنتصر غير متواجد حالياً

رسالتي للجميع

افتراضي



 

INTEGRATED FORWARD MAINTENANCE SUPPORT



Battlefield maintenance support integrates unit- and DS-level maintenance. This integration occurs at the UMCP and is accomplished using MSTs assigned to the forward support maintenance company. The forward support maintenance company's mission is to provide dedicated DSM to a maneuver brigade. The maintenance company TOE provides mobile SSTs that are authorized on the basis of one per maneuver battalion. The authorization is based on supporting a pure battalion (armor or infantry). As the battalions task organize, the maintenance company commander task organizes his SST assets into an MST capable of supporting a task force. This MST is sent forward to the UMCP. The team remains with the UMCP, is integrated into the UMCP defense plan, and receives routine administrative logistics support from the supported units. Team elements may be sent forward to the breakdown site, and while the team is able to perform more extensive repairs than the company maintenance team, they adhere to repair-time limitations. Figure 7-2 shows how SST assets can be task organiz-ed into MSTs to support task force operations.


RECOVERY AND EVACUATION


Another aspect of forward support maintenance is battlefield recovery and evacuation. Recovery or evacuation moves inoperable equipment to the maintenance activity best suited for the repair or to balance the work of forward elements so they can meet new requirements. Battlefield recovery is the first step in reclaiming and reissuing military equipment. The using unit is primarily responsible for recovering damaged equipment. Recovery by tactical units is usually to UMCPs along MSRs. Sometimes the tactical units will be forced to leave damaged equipment in place in the offense, and with coordination, supporting maintenance units may be required to recover this equipment.


Evacuating damaged equipment begins where recovery operations stop at the UMCP. Evacuation is a coordinated effort among maintenance, supply, and transportation elements. The equipment is transported on HETs rearward to another DSM repair facility.


The MMC provides automatic evacuation instructions to DSM units. These instructions identify the specific DSM units or GSM units that will provide reinforcing maintenance support to other DSM units. Automatic evacuation instructions are intended to simplify and streamline the evacuation of unserviceable equipment. This is accomplished by eliminating the need for DSM units to contact the MMC each time an unserviceable piece of equipment requires evacuation. These instructions allow the DSM units and their backups to work together, and when possible, the backup DSM unit can send MSTs forward to repair the unserviceable equipment onsite.


CANNIBALIZATION AND CONTROLLED EXCHANGE


Cannibalization and controlled exchange may be used when parts are not available from the supply system and an item of equipment can be repaired using parts from other unserviceable equipment. The appropriate commander decides to cannibalize or effect controlled exchange on unserviceable equipment. Higher HQ establishes the guidelines on which he will base his decisions. Cannibalization is the authorized removal, under specific conditions, of serviceable and unserviceable parts, components, and assemblies from materiel authorized for disposal. Controlled exchange is removing serviceable parts, components, and assemblies from unserv-iceable, economically repairable equipment and immediately reusing them in restoring like items of equipment to a combat-operable or serviceable condition. Controlled exchange decisions should be made as close to the site of damaged equipment as possible, preferably by using unit personnel in coordination with MST personnel. In controlled exchange, the unserviceable part is exchanged with the replacement, which ensures the end item remains complete, if not serviceable. The needed repair part is then ordered.


REPAIR-TIME LIMITATIONS


a. General. Repair-time limitations will concentrate the entire maintenance effort on making quick repairs forward to ensure the maximum number of combat weapon systems are available to commanders. Figure 7-1 provides guidelines for repair-time limitations. The COSCOM will establish repair-time criteria.


b. Guidelines. The first step in determining what level of maintenance is required to repair a piece of equipment is to identify the deficiency. The deficiency is compared with the maintenance allocation chart (MAC) to determine if the repair can be accomplished at the unit, DSM, GSM, or depot level of maintenance. If the repair requires GSM or depot-level maintenance, the piece of equipment is evacuated to EAC for repair and then returned to the supply system. If DSM is required for the repair, an estimate is made of the number of hours it will take for repair. This estimate should include all activities that must be completed to return the piece of equipment to the user.


Generally, if the estimate is less than 36 hours, the normal assigned DSM unit will repair the equipment. If the estimate is between 36 and 96 hours, the backup DSM unit will make the repair. If the estimate is greater than 96 hours, the equipment is a candidate for evacuation to EAC.


These repair-time limitations are provided for planning purposes only and can be changed by division and corps-level commanders to support a specific mission or situation. The appropriate-level command will publish the changes to the repair-time limitations in its CSS annex or FRAGO. In a static type of defense, the repair-time limitations may be extended to reduce the amount of evacuation required to higher-level or backup DSM units. In a pursuit type of offensive operation, the repair-time limitations may be reduced to allow higher-level or reinforcing DSM units to move forward and repair the equipment in MCPs.


CONTROL PROCEDURES


Maintenance repair-time guidelines assist CSS leaders in deciding where to repair equipment. This prevents equipment from accumulating in the forward area and aids in distributing the work load. Times are based on
command policy and the factors of METT-T. The guidelines are flexible and nonrestrictive, and the commander who imposed the guidelines may change them. The time begins with the operator and crew's diagnosis and ends when the equipment is returned to battle (released to the user).


MACs authorize certain repairs to be made at each level. When used in conjunction with the time guidelines, they help determine who performs a given repair and how long it will take to complete the action. Repairs not authorized at a specific level or that will exceed the time allowed are usually evacuated to the next level of maintenance.

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

رد مع اقتباس

قديم 30-06-09, 11:54 AM

  رقم المشاركة : 25
معلومات العضو
المنتصر
مشرف عام

الصورة الرمزية المنتصر

إحصائية العضو





المنتصر غير متواجد حالياً

رسالتي للجميع

افتراضي



 

FORCE DEVELOPMENT



The number of maintenance units required to support a combat force depends on the density of that force's combat equipment. To this information, planners add analysis of the combat area METT-T, transportation facilities, HNS, pre-positioned war reserve stocks, and anticipated combat length and intensity. These factors vary depending on the political situation and the geographic area to which forces are being deployed. For example, planners would structure a support force to sustain the land combat of a corps in Europe differently than they would a contingency corps deployed to the Middle East.


REPAIR PARTS


Each level of maintenance and the supply system (GS) at COSCOM stock and issue maintenance repair parts. All units maintain a PLL of parts designed to sustain the unit for a specified number of days. These parts are limited to essential quantities.


a. General. The DSU maintains a more extensive repair parts stockage designed to replenish the needs of its supported units and its own needs. The divisional DSU stockage is part of the division's ASL and is usually limited to about 3,000 line items. The heavy division's light maintenance company, part of the MSB, maintains a division ASL of 6,000 to 10,000 line items. COSCOM DSUs maintain approximately 5,000 line items in their ASL. The repair parts supply company (GS) is the source of repair parts for the DSUs. This unit stocks approximately 35,000 to 45,000 line items.


b. Requests. Supported units submit requests and pick up repair parts at their supporting DSM company. The DSM units' ASLs must support the combat PLLs of supported units in their area of support. The ASL should also include parts that DSM companies will need to perform authorized DS-level maintenance tasks. DSM units will fill deadlined and emergency requests immediately on receipt and by the most expeditious means.


c. Requisition. When DSM companies cannot fill the requests from their ASL, the DMMC transmits requisitions to the COSCOM MMC. The COSCOM MMC also receives requisitions from corps, their supported divisions, nondivisional units, and from DMMCs. Applicable MMC parts supply branches will process requisitions daily and initiate followup actions to determine each requisition's status. The MMC will screen, consolidate, and forward specified units' requisitions to appropriate CONUS NICPs to be delivered via air lines of communication (ALOCs). It will transmit all other routine requisitions, including requisitions for TA-controlled items, to the TAMMC.


d. Issue. The repair parts supply company (GS) supplies non-ALOC-designated class IX items. The COSCOM MMC controls the repair parts inventory maintained in the repair parts supply company.


e. Distribution. COSCOM and the TAACOM repair parts supply companies make up the GS base of supply for repair parts. Once surface-delivered repair parts arrive in theater, theater transportation assets will transport them to a TAACOM or COSCOM GS repair parts supply company. Repair parts will then be transported to DSM units. CONUS NICPs provide class IX and maintenance-related class II items to support ALOC units. Repair parts requisitioned from the NICP will be shipped by air to the aerial port nearest the ALOC-designated requesting unit.


AVIATION REPAIR PARTS


Aviation units (AVUM companies) submit class IX requests to their supporting division ASB. The division ASB's ground maintenance company maintains both ground and aviation repair parts for the aviation brigade. The division ASB's ASL includes repair parts that support the aviation brigade's PLLs. The ASL will also include repair parts required to provide AVIM-level authorized repairs. The division ASB will transmit consolidated requisitions for aircraft repair parts to the MMC. It will also requisition replenishment repair parts for its ASL. The DMMC processes the requisitions, arranges to cross-level spares, and initiates any required followup action.


SALVAGE


In contrast to scrap items, salvage items retain some value in excess of their basic materiel *******. A CSG should set up supply unit salvage points near MCPs. The MCPs will turn serviceable items over to the salvage point for return through supply channels. Salvage collecting points will turn over mechanical items to the MCP for classification, repair, and disposition.


EQUIPMENT REPLACEMENT


Another component of the fixing process is providing replacement equipment when damaged or inoperable equipment cannot be fixed and returned to the user within a reasonable time. To ensure the most effective use of end items, these items are normally command controlled. Issuing weapon systems follows the normal distribution route,EAC to the heavy materiel supply company (GS) and on to the issuing DS supply company.


The daily battle loss report serves as the requisition for selected major end items. The COSCOM MMC publishes and updates the list of corps- or theater-controlled items. The COSCOM HQ designates these items as "reportable items." Their inclusion in the logistics status report serves as their requisition. The COSCOM MMC will report the battle loss of critical, command-controlled weapon systems to the corps G3 and G4. The corps commander will approve their issue. The corps commander also directs their distribution to the units he regards as the most critical to the corps battle's success. Following command approval, the TAMMC or COSCOM MMC directs issue from a heavy materiel supply company to the supporting DS supply company. WSRO-controlled weapon systems need to link up with a replacement crew. Depending on METT-T, linkup could occur in the BSA, DSA, or heavy materiel supply company area.


WEAPON SYSTEM REPLACEMENT OPERATIONS


Efficient allocation of limited weapon system resources and crew members is best accomplished by managing weapon components separately. The corps commander will designate a WSM to intensively manage corps weapon system replacement. Due to the criticality of weapon system replacement to the corps battle, the corps commander could appoint the corps G3 as the WSM. The G3 would then coordinate the COSCOM's weapon system repair, replacement, and transportation resources with the personnel group's crew replacement resources. The work load associated with keeping track of all assigned crew-served weapon systems, their units of assignment, mechanical condition, and expected date of return from maintenance units may best be handled at the COSCOM level.


WSRO is a management tool used to supply the combat commander with fully operational major weapon systems, including required equipment and trained crews. Two terms that are often used to describe WSRO are "ready for issue" and "ready to fight." A ready-for-issue weapon system is mechanically operable, including additional equipment [radios, machineguns, fuel, and basic issue items (BII)]. A ready-to-fight system is a manned ready-for-issue weapon with ammunition stowed aboard and is boresighted. The WSM can also use critical HETs or available rail assets to push the weapon forward to the linkup point.


CLASS VII


Class VII stocks are maintained at corps level and higher. Division units submit their requests for class VII items to the DMMC property book class VII section. If stocks are available within the division, the section directs lateral transfer of stocks between units to satisfy the requirement. If stocks are not available within the division, the DMMC requisitions them from the COSCOM MMC. Physical distribution of incoming stocks is handled through the same channels as classes II, III (packaged), and IV.


OPERATIONAL READINESS FLOAT


Upon the outbreak of general hostilities, nondeployed MACOMs will use ORFs to improve the readiness posture and fill shortages per the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans' guidance. Deployed MACOMs will do the same and also use ORF to fill initial battle losses. Units deploying before the outbreak of hostilities will deploy with unit-allocated ORF equipment from the installation. Unit ORF authorization for peacetime deployment is based on a ratio of unit equipment density by line item number (LIN) supported by the installation ORF from which the unit is deploying.

 

 


المنتصر

يقول احد القادة القدماء وهويخاطب جنوده . ( اذا لم تكونوا مستعدين للقتال من أجل ما تروه عزيزاً عليكم , فسوف يأخذه أحد ما عاجلا أو اَجلا , واذا كنتم تفضلوا السلام على الحرية فسوف تخسرونهما معاً , واذا كنتم تفضلوا الراحة والرخاء والسلام على العدل والحرية فسوف تخسروهما جميعا ) .

   

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